ALLIOLI 325 ALLORI nine important essays on the Uoyal Supremacy and cognate subjects. These volumes ant.1 '/'/ic Journal in France are now out of print. The two vohimcs on J?t. Peter have been re- pubbsheil by the Catholic Trulli!^ociety, (he smaller one at tlic express desire of Pope Leo XIII. io wiiom the book is dc.licuteU. .1 l.ika Drcisiun is m the secoiul e<iition, which contauis an important addition, five volumes of the Forma- tion have appeared in the popular eilition; the three remain- ing volumes will follow at, it is hoped, no di-^tant date. Al.tKY H. Alliks. Allioli, Joseph Fr.vnz, b. at Sulzbach, 10 August, 17'.);!; d. at Aug.sburg, 22 May, 187.'J. He studied tlioulogy at Landshut, was ordained at Hatisbon, ISlli, .studied Oriental languages at Vienna, Home, and Paris (lSl,S-2()), became professor in the Uni- versity at Land.shut in KS2-1, and was transferred with the university to Munich in 182(5, but owing to a weak throat he had to accept a canonrj- at Ratisbon, in 1835, and became Dean of the chapter at Augsburg, in 1838 His works are: "Aphorismen iiber den Zusammenhang der heiligen Schrift .lten und Neuen Testan'ents, aus der Idee des Reidis Gottes" (Ratisbon 1*19); "Hausliche Alterthiimcr der Hebraer nebst biblischer Geographic (1821); "Biblische Alterthiimer" (Landshut, 1825); "Hand- bucli der biblischen Alterthumskunde" (in co- operation with Cinitz and Haneberg, Landshut, 18-13-44); " lebersttzung der heiligen Schriften .■Mtcn und Neuen Testaments, aus der Vulgata, mit Hezug auf den Grundte.xt, neu iibersetzt und mit kurzon Anmerkungen erliiutert, dritte Auflage von Allioli umgearbeitet " (6 vols., Niirnberg, 1830-35). This work received a papal approbation, 11 Jlay, 1830. Hergesrother in KirchenUx,; Wetzer und Welte, Konveraationt-LeiiJion, 3 ed. (St. Louis, 1902); Vio., Diet, de la bible (.Paris, 1895). A. J. M..S. Allison, WiLLi.^ii. — He was one of the English priests who were victims of the plots of 1679-80, and died a prisoner in York Castle about this time. CHALI.ONER, Memoirt; GiLLOW, Bibl. Diet. John J. .' Becket. Allocution is a solemn form of address or speech from the tlirone employed by the Pope on certain occa-sions. It is delivered only in a secret consistory at which the cardinals alone are present. The term alhcutin was used by the ancient Romans for the speech made by a commander to liis trooi>s, either before a battle or during it, to animate and encourage them. The term when adopted into ecclesiastical usage retained much of its original significance. An allocution of the Pope often takes the place of a manifesto when a struggle between the Holy .See and the secular powers has reached an acute stage. It then usually summarizes the points at issue and details the efforts made by the Holy See to preserve peace. It likewise indicates what the Pope has already conceded and the limit which principle obliges iiim to put to further concessions.
secret consistory of cardinals, as opposed to a
public and ceremonious one, is a meeting of thosa dignitaries in presence of the Pope to discuss mat- ters of great importance concerning the well-being of the Church. At these .secret consistories the Sovereign Pontiff not only creates cardinals, bishops, and legates, but he also discu.sses with the cardinals grave matters of State arising out of those mi.xcd affairs, partly religious, partly civil, in which con- flict can easily arise between Church and State. In such secret consistories the cardinals liave a con- sultative vote. When the Pope has reached a con- chision on some important matter, he makes his mind known to the cardinals by means of a direct addrc.-is. or allocution. Such allocutions, thougli delivered in .secret, are iLsuaily published for the purpose of making clear the attitude of the Holy hee on a given qtiestion. They treat generally of tnatters that affect the whole Church, or of religious troubles in a particular country where ecclesiastical rights are infringed or endangered, or where heretical or immoral doctrines are undermining the faith of the people. .Most of the subjects presented to the secret consistory have already Ix-en prepared in the consistorial congregation, which is composed of a limited number of cardinals. These conclusions may be accepted or rejected by the Pope as he thinks proper. In matters of statecraft the Pontiff also takes counsel with those most conversant with the subject at issue and with his Secretary of State. His conclusions are embodied in the allocution. Among papal allocutions of later times which at- tracted widespread attention from the importance or delicacy of the matters with which they dealt, may be mentioned those of Pius VH on the French Concordat (1802) and on the difficulties created by XaiX)leon for the Holy See (1808); those of Greg- orj' W'l referring to the troubles with Prassia con- cerning mixed marriages, and with Russia over forcible conversions to the schismatical Greek Church; tho.se of Pius IX concerning the attacks on the Pope's temporal jxiwer, and of Pius X on the rupture with Irancc occiusioned by the breaking of the Concordat anil the consecjuent separation of Church and State in that country. De I.icA. Protect. Jur. Can. (Rome, 1897). II; Bocix, De Curia Romana (Paris, 1880); Binder, CmversationsUz. (Uali.'ibon, 1S4C). WlLUAM H. W. Fa-VXING. Allogenes. See Gnostics. Allori, (1) Anoiolo di Cosimo, called II Bronzino, an exceptionally able painter and a poet, b. at .Ion- ticello, near Florence, in 1502; d. at Florence in 1572. He was a pupil of Ralfaelino del Garbo and later of Jacopo da Pontormo, whom he assisted, and some of whose unfinished works he completed. Allori, who was the friend of Vasari, became court painter to the Medicean tyrant Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Among his brilliant series of portraits are tho.se of Dante. Petrarch, and Boccaccio. A great admirer of Michael Angelo, his work shows that master's grandiose influence. Among his relig- ioas, allegorical, and historical paintings the chief is the "Limbo", or "Descent of Christ into Hell", in the Uffizi. For Florentine public buildings Allori executed various works. Some of his most notable paintings in public galleries are "Young Sculptor", "Boy with a Letter", "A Lady", and "Ferdinando de' Medici", in the I'fTizi; "The Engineer", at the Pitti Palace; "Cosimo I", "Knight of St. Stephan", "A Lady", and "Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time", in the National Gallerj' in London! the last two painted for Francis I of France; "Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalen", in the Louvre; the "Dead Christ", in the Florence Academy; and "Venus and Cupid", at Buda-Pesth. In the galleries of Vienna and Dresden appear portraits of his patron, Cosimo, accompanied by the Duchess Eleonora. Similar rmrtraits arc found at Lucca in both the Royal Palace and the Communal Gallerj-, and in Rome" in the palace of the Borghcse. The Duchess is also represented at the T'ffizi. (2) Alle.ss. dro, a nephew of (1), b. at Florence. 1535, d. there 1(507, was an artist of rnuch ability and was patronized by the Grand Duke Francesco. (3) Crkstofano, Alle-ssandro's son, known as Bronzing the Voi-nger, b. at Florence, 1577, d. there 1(521, a pupil of his father, of Santodi Tito and Cigoli, and of somewhat irregular life, was a painter of talent both in figure and landscajw and one of the beat colourists of the Florentine school. Vasari. /.iim «/ the I'ainlrrt I Kn,i. Ir. I.onilon. 1850; New York. lS9fl); Charles Blanc. L'EcoU Flormline. in hil Ihttoire de» pnntreg de louteg leu ^colrg (40 vols.. Pari^. 1848- 7ti): BAl.DlM'rri, Soliiie de' prnjrMori del dutryno da timabut in VU.1 (Florence, 1681-1728. 17(37-74, 184(>-I7; Turin. 1768.