Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/477

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AMERICAN 42:i AMERICAN inform us of a jovimey to (ireenland hitherto unknown. Iti the text intendett to accompany his second map of (ireenland Clavus expressly states: " Grolanilie insulo chersonesus dependet a terrS. inaccessibili a parte septentrioiiif) vel iKiiotA propter glaciem. Ven- mnt tamen KareU infideles, ut vidi, in Grolandiam cum copioso excrcitu ()Uottiilie. et hoc absque dubio ex altera parte pnVi si'ptciitrionulis". (The penin- sula of the island of (Ireenland |)rojects from a lan<l inaccessible from the Nortli or unknown on account of the ice. However, the pagan Careli, as I have witnessed, invade Creenlaml every day with a nu- merous army, and no doubt come from the other side of the polar circle.) Clavus, therefore, seems to have been one eye-witne.<s of the last hostile attacks which finally resulted in the destruction of the eastern .settlement, which was the hust Norse colony in Amer- ica. It is true that many attempts were still made to con'ey a.ssistance to the hard-pressed Norse set- tlers, particularly by the jiredecessor of the last Cath- olic .Vrclibishop of Trondhjem. Eric Walkendorf (d. 1.")2lM. but all came to naught. So the last de- scendants of the old Vikings were left to their own resources anil were gradually absorbed by native Eskimo population. Hkkveh. The Findina of Winflaml the Good (London, 1890); ItEYWooD, DocumenUi st'Ucta e tobulario aecrelo Wuicana Utonic, 18931; .A.damus Ukemkn.sis, Adami Gttta llamma- burgmsu KccUair Pontificum ex rtccneione LapiH-nbergi, ed. Waitz (Hanover. 1874); Griintaruli huiloritke Mindet- miTTkrr (Copenhagen, 1838-45); Kafn, AnttquilaUa Amert- canct (Copenhagen, 1837); SroHM, Ulanditke Annaler imIlU IS7S (Chri.'itiaiiia, 1888); Monummta Hustorica Norwegur (Christiania, 1888); Eiriks Saga Raudoa (Copenhagen, 1891); .4r« lalendingubiik, ed JiSs-saoN (Copenhagen, 1887), ed. UoLTilER (Halle, a. S., 1892); Werlauff, Sumbotir ad Geogra- phi'im medii wi'i ex numumenlia latandicis (Copenhagen, 1821); .NnERSON, America not Discovered by Columbttg with a bihliography of the pre-Ct)lumbian discoveries of America by Watson, 4th e<i. (Chicago, ISOP; De Koo, Ilietory of Ameriai before Columbus (I'liilailclphia, 1900), a most com- plete account of all more or less probable discoveries of America before Columbus; Herdekmann. .Imcrica before Columbus in Li. S. Cath. IRst. Soc. Historical Records arid Studies (New York, 1901), II; Winsor, Narratiie atul Critical llisloru of America (Boston. 18SIJ-89); Lucas, The Annals of the Vnnages of the Brothers iccol(> and Antonio Zeno (London, 1898); KisKE. The Discovery of America. 2 vols. (Boston, 1902), small eihtion of 1 vol. (Boston, 19aj); .Stobm. Sludier over I'inUimta reiscme Vinlands geogrnphi og ethnografi (Copen- hagen, 1888); abri.lged Knglish edition .S7i«/»f» on tAc Vinland Voyages (Copenhagen. 1889); Om Zcniemes reiser in Xorske aeogr. selskabstarboy (Christiania, 1891); S ye Eftcrretninger om drt Gamle Gmntand m Hist. Tidskrilt (Christiania, 1892); Fischer. Die Entdeckumjrn der Sormannen in Amrrika (Frei- burg. 1902), tr. SOULSBY, The Discoveries of the Norsemen in .merica (London 1903), with rich literary details concerning the works of Humboldt, dc Costa, Horaford, Nordenski<iUl. Maurer, Storm, Harrisse, Kuije etc.; HEnnERMANN, The Sorthmen in .America in llisloncal Records and Stttdies (New York, 1903), III, Part 1: FlsniER, The Tithes of the Crusades inGreenland 1270-82, ibid. (New Y'ork, 1904), III, Part II; Bjornbo oi; Petersen, Cbtwtius Claiiss^m Su-art (Copenhagen. 1904); Thai-DITzer, The Eskimo Language with an historical introiiuction about the Ka-it Kskimo in Meddelelser um GronlamI (Copenhagen, 1904), XXXI; Skrtrlingrme i .Mark- Ittnd og Gronland, deres Sprog og ationatitet in Danske Viilens kab. Srlsk. Forhandl. (1905); JoNSsoN, Gronland gamle Tojkhj- ro/i efter KUdeme in Meddelelser (Copenhagen, 1S99). XX; NiEi-sEN, Nordmcendog Skralinger i Vinland in Sorske G. S. Aarb. (1905). Joseph Fischeh. American OoUefre, The, in Kdme. — The American College in Rome, or to give the title, "The . ierican College of the Koman Catholic Church of the I'nited .States, Rome, Italy", owes its existence chiefly to Archbisliop Hughes, of New York, and .■rchbishop Kenrick of Baltimore, who wore the most conspicuous sup[)orters of I'ius IX in found- ing at Rome this institution which h;us done so much for half-a-century to preserve and propagate Roman traditions and maintain unity liotween the l^ee of Peter and the Church in the l'nito<l .States. When a numl)er of American bisho[is went to Rome in 18,54 to be present at the proclamation of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception, they expressed to Pius IX the desire to see an American college es- tablished that should take rank with the other national colleges in that city. Bishop Michael O'Con- nor, of Pittsburg, an alumnus of the Propaganda, seconded the elTorts of the leading prelates already mentioned, and .six-cially pressed the matter on the attention of the Pontiff. In his reply to the letter of the archbishojis and bishops composing the First Provincial Council of New York, Pitis IX proposed the establishment of a North American College in Rome. Arclibishop Hughes, who had long fostered this idea, immediately wrote to the other archbishoiM of the I'nited States and to his suffragans, extollii;g the Pope's design and asking their advice its to th.e best method of putting it into execution, and of pro- curing the means neccs-sarv to support the college when established. In the Eighth Provincial Coun- cil of Baltimore held from May 6 to May 10, ISo.?, it was resolved to ap|X)int a committee of three bishoi)s to re|>ort on the subject of the American College. Bishop O'Connor, of Pittsburg, Bishop Neu- mann, of Philadelphia and Dr. Lynch, Administrator of Charleston, were appointed. It was sub.sequently agreetl that the Pojic should be asked to select three bishops as a committee to carry out the idea; that the .rclihislioi) of Baltimore should act as promoter until their appointment, and that an active and ex- I)erienced clergyinan should lie sent to Rome to make the necessary preparations. Pius IX became so in- terested in the project that he offered to purchase and prei-ent a suitable building for the purpose, while the American bishops would furnish it and procure the funds necessary for its maintenance. In 18,57, the Pojx; bought for S42,(MK), the old Visitation Convent of the rmilt;, then occupied by soldiers of the French g:irrison in Rome. The free use of it in perpetuity was accorded to the American bishops. By reason of its military occupation the building was in bad condition. On 12 December, 18,58, the Archbishop of New York ordered a general collection in all the churches of his diocese to procure funds for the nec- essary repairs and for the furnishing of the college. The peojile were most generous in their contribu- tions, and the other American archbishops and bishops co-operated so liljcrally that in a short time the sum of nearly S50,0(X) was collected. Repairs were im- mediately begun on the building, and in the year fol- lowing it was fit for occupancy. On the Sth of De- ceml)er, l.S,59, the college was formally opened with thirteen students who had for some time been wait- ing in the College of the Propaganda for this event. On the day of the opening of the college, Monsignor Bedini, Secretary of the Sacred Congregation of the Propaganda, consecrated the marble altar of the college chawl, and on the twelfth of the same month the feast of Our I-ady of Guadaloiipe, to whom one of the side altars is dedicated, he celebrated Pontifical Miuss in the college church. On the feast of St. P'rancis do Sales, 29 Januarj', IStiO, Pius IX visited the college. To commemorate this event, a tablet bearing the following inscription was put up: "On .lanuarv 29, 18(i(J, the feast of St. Francis de Sales, Pius IX, the Sujireme Pontiff, father and founder of the American College, s;iid Mass in this building, fed the alumni with the heavenly banquet, visited the college, and deigned to give audience to all ". His Holiness was assisted on the occasion by Bishop David Bacon, of Portland, Maine, and by Monsignor Goss, of Liverixxil. The Kev. Bernard Smith, O.S.B., professor in the Propiiganda College, and aftervvards an abbot, wjis apix)intcd temjKirary rector of the college, until the appointment, in March, 18()0, of the Rev. William (icorgc McCloskey, who was then an assistant at the Church of the Nativity, New York City, and later Bishop of Ix>uisville. During the administration of Father McCloskey the college flourished, the number of students incrciusing rapidly from thirteen to fifty, of whom six came from New York, four from Newark.