and Church history. He wjis always greatly devoted to such studies, and in his lectures often drew atten- tion to the literarj' treasures of Christian antiquity. To him they stood iis the unbroken series of witnesses to the doctrine, worship, and constitution of the Church — the successive evidences of her many vic- tories, as he puts it in the introduction to his "Patro- logie odcr christlichcn Litcrarfjeschiilite", the first vohimc of which, dcalinu with the first three centu- ries, wsvs edited by Reithmayr with .additions of his own (Ratisbon, 1S40). Less important is the "Kommen- tar \iber den Riinierbricf ' (Rati.sbon, 184.5), .ilso edited by Reithmayr after Mohler's death; it is diffi- cult to say how much of it is Mohler's own work. The same mav be said of the "Kirchcniicscliiclile von ,1. A. M6hlcr""(3 vols., Ratisbon, lS(i7-S; index vol., 1870), laboriously compiled from cla.ss notes liv tlie Benedic- tine Pius Gams, and later translated into French.
Ukithu \VR, Biographical sketcli in the fifth t-tlition of the Stjm- botik: Idkm in Kirchcnlei. (l.S!l:i). s. v.; KlHN in Hmch, Ergiln- iungen (latest cd.. 1906). i-lii: Friedrich, J. .t. Miihlcr.rler Sym- boliker (Munich. 1894); KnOpflf.r (Munich, isnfi): Monatsier (Lausanne. 1.S97): Waoe.nmann-Hauck in Realcnctjkl. Jilr prol. Theol.. s. v.: Goyau (Paris. 1905); ScBtaiD. Dcr gei^lige Enlwick- lungsgano MShlers in Hisl. Jahrb. (Munich, 1897) , .•!22-56, 572-99.
Mobr, Chrlstian, b. at .\ndernach, 1823; d. at Cologne, 1888. He practised his profession of sculp- tor chiefly at Cologne under the cathedral architect Zwimer. .\fter some early ornamental work at Mainz and Coblenz, Mohr settled in Cologne in 1845. He first executed the statuettes on the tomb of Archbishop Conrad of Hochstaden, the founder of the cathedral. Of importance are liis figures of Christ, the Evangelists, and fifty-nine angels on the south portal of the cathedral, where the rich variety of the atlded symbols excites admiration. On the commission of Emperor ^^'illiam I the eight statues in the middle hall were executed. The "St. Peter" for the middle portal won Mohr the first-cla.ss medal at the P.aris Exhibition of 18.5.5. He also carved the statue of the first Cologne cathedral architect, Gerhard Riele. and that of the veteran painter of the Cologne school, Stcphan Lochner. He undertook many commissions outside of Cologne: the panoramic figures for the assembly-hall at Dtisseldorf, the thirtj'- four figures of t he emperors for the Rathaus at .Aachen, the equestrian statues for the Fiirstenbergische Schlo.ss at Herdringcn, the portrait effigies of the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, the figures for the fountain on the market-place at Liibeck. etc. For more than forty years he was thus engaged at Cologne, executing commissions for that city and other places. The cathedral is indebted to him for the best of its sculptural decoration; the Rathhaus for the statues of the emperors, and the Museum for the bust of Michelangelo, which in 1873 secured for Mohr the honour of being made a regular member of the K. K. Akademie of Vienna. Mohr was equally esteemed a,s an art-collector and connoisseur of classi- cal and German antiquities. His household furni- ture represented the art of the Diirer period. That he was not opposed to the Renaissance is proved bv a beautiful silver epergne in that style. Finally, "he appears as a writer on art in the works "Kiiln in seiner Glanzzeit" and "Kolner Torburgen". For his knowledge and his achievements he was indebted for the most part to his personal exertions, since he was practically self-educated; and, even though in many cases he only executed the plans of Schwan- thaler, still numerous independent works display both talent and taste.
ZrUtchr. far biUende Kumt, XXIV, 100 sqq.; Illuslrierle Zri- tung, no. 866 (1860).
Mohr, Jo.sEPH, b. at Siegburg, Rhine Province, 11 Jan., 1.834: d. at Munich, 7 February, 1892. Father Mohr did more than any other within the
last century towards restoring to general use, es- pecially in German-speaking countries, tho.se virile melodies and t(>xts .sung in the vernacular by the ])eople prior to the Reformat ion — .sonic dating from the twelfth centur\ — which had been displaced by a scnti- mentivl ckiss of hymns more in keeping with modem taste. While at first Father Mohr stood practi- ciilly alone in the pioneer work of research, he later found powerful assisttmce in the labours of Rev. Dr. \Vm. Biuimker and Rev. Guido Maria Dreves, at thiit lime a Jesuit, both of whom became famous specialists in this field. Among his many works may be mentioned: "Lasset uns beten"; "Treatise on P.salmodv"; "Cacilia", a hymn-book and prayer- book; "Cant ate", a hymn and prayer-book; "Psalml Officii hebdomad;e sancta?"; "Vesperbiichlein"; "Laudate Dominum", a hymn-book and prayer-book intended more cs])ecially for institutions of higher eductition; "Manuale Cantorum", and "Psalter- lein", a hymn-book and prayer-book. Most of these collections — model hymn-books as well as prayer- books — have had large circulations; the "Cantate" has had forty-two editions, and the thirty-third edition of the collection, "Cacilia", has recently appeared. Several of Father Mohr's collections became the official hymn-books of certain dioceses; others served as the basis for the compilation of official diocesan hymn-books. Mohr had the gift, rare at the present time, of writing genuine hymn- tunes, some of which are in his collections.
Cdcitianvereitis-Catalog (Ratisbon, 1870) ; Kornmuller, Lexi' kon der kirchlichen TonkuJist (Ratisbon, 1895).
Moigno, FRANfois-N,\poLEON- Marie, physicist and author, b. at Gu^m^ne (Morbihan), 15 April, 1804; d. at Saint-Denis (Seine), 14 July, 1SS4. He received his early education at the Jesuit col- lege at Sainte- Anne d'Auray and entered the novi- tiate of the order 2 Sept.. 1S22. He made his theologi- cal studies at Mont- rouge, devoting his leisure to mathematics and physics in which he achieved much success. Upon the outbreak of the Revolution of 1830, he fled with his brethren to Brieg in Switzer- land. Here he con- Fhanitois-Napollon-M.ahie .Moigno
tinued his studies and, being endowed with a remarka- ble memory, acquired at the same time several foreign languages, including Hebrew and Arabic. In 1836 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the well- known college of Ste-Genevieve, Rue des Postes, in Paris. Here he became widely known not only as a scholar, but also as a preacher and writer of ability. He wrote numerous articles for the press and was much esteemed by the scientific men of the time, in- cluding Cauchy, Arago, Dumas^ Ampere, etc. He was engaged on one of his best known works, " Lemons de calcul diff^rentiel et de calcul int(?gral", based chiefly on Cauchy 's methods, and had alreacjy pub- lished the first volume, when he left the Society in 1843. Shortly afterwards he undertook a tour of Europe, contributing numerous letters to tiie journal "LE- poqiie". He acted as chaplain of the Lyc^e Loui.s- le-Grand from 1.S4S to 1851. He became scientific editor of the "Presse" in 1850 and of the "Pays" in 1851 and in 1852 founded the weU-known soientifio