The Colcstinos, founded about forty years later by Sf. Peter Morone (Celostine V), were organized on much the same jilaii but tlie siiperiors were not perpetual and the head of llie wliole body was an Abbot (>lected by tlie ("leneral Cliapter for three years and ineligible for re-election for nine years after his previous term of office (see Celkstines; Celestine V, St.)- The Olivetans, foimded about 1313 by Bernardo Tolomei of Siena, mark the last stage of development. In their case the monks were not professed for any par- ticular monastery, but, like friars, for the congregation in general. The oflicials of the various hou.ses were chosen by a small ciunniittee appointed for this pur- pose by the general chapter. The abbot-general was visitorof all monasteries and "superior of superiors", but his power W!us held for a very short period only. This system had the very great advantage that it rendered the existence of commendatory superiors practically impossible, but it secured this at the cost of sacrificing all family life in the individual monas- terj- which is the central idi>a of St. Benedict's legisla- tion. Further, by taking the right of election away from the monastic communities, it concentrated all real power in the hands of a small committee, a course ob\-iously open to many possible dangers (see Olive- tans).
(li) Motwxiic Ririrnl. — In the great wave of reform and revival which characterized the later fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the older institutions of Benedic- tines once more gave proof of their vitality and a spon- taneous renewal of vigour was shown throughout Euroi)e. This revival followed two main lines. In the Latin countries the movement pursued the path marked out by the Olivetans. Thus in Italy all the monasteries of Black monks were gradually united together under the name of the Congregation of St. Jus( ina of Padua, afterwards called the Cassinese Con- gregation (sec under Benedictines). Similar meth- ods were adopted in the formation of the Congrega- tions of St. Maur and St. Vannes in France, in the two Congregations of Spanish Benedictines, and in the revival of the English Congregation. In Ger- many the revival took a different path; and, while keeping closer to the traditions of the past, united the existing monasteries very much in the manner or- dered by the Fourth Council of Lateran in 1215. The Union of Bursfeld is perhaps the best example of this method. An example of reform in the seventeenth century was the work of Abb6 de Ranee in instituting the Cistercian reform at La Trappe. In this his object was to get as close as possible to the primi- tive form of Benedictine life. No one can question his sincerity or the singleness of his intentions, but de Ranee was not an antiquary and had not been trained as a monk but as a courtier. The result was that he interpreted St. Benedict's rule with the most absolute literalness, and thus succeeded in producing a cast- iron mode of life far more rigid and exacting than there is any reason to believe St. Benedict himself either desired lo or did beget. The upheaval of the French Hevfplution and the wars which followed it Beeirieil likely to give a death blow to Western mon- achifcin and in fact, did destroy monasteries by the hundred. But nothing perhaps is more noteworthy, in all the wonderful revival of Catholicism which the last hundred years have seen, than the resuscitation of monastic life in all its forms, not only in Europe, but also in America, Africa, Australia, and other distant lands whose verj' existence was unknown to the found- ers of Western monachism. Details of this revival will be found in the articles on the various orders and congregations referred to above.
No mention has been made in this article of the question of women imder Monasticism. Broadly speaking the history of contemplative nuns, as distinct from nuns of the more recent active orders, has been identical with that of the monks. In almost every in-
stance the modififations, reforms, etc., made by the various mona,stic legislators have been adopted by convents of women as well as by the monks. In cases where any special treatment has been t hought necessary, e. g. the Carthusian Nuns, a separate sec- tion of t he article on the order or congregation in ques- tion has been dedicated to the subject. These sec- tions should be referred to in all cases for detailed informal ion. (For practical details of the monastic life anil I lie actual working of a monastery see the articles Monastici.sm; Monastery; Abbey; Abbot; Abbess; Obedientiaries; Benedict, Rule of St.; Benedict OF NuRsiA, St.; Nun.)
G. Roger Hudleston.
Moncada, Francisco de. Count of Osona, Spanish historian, son of the Governor of Sardinia and Cata- lonia, b. at Valencia, 29 December, l.'jSfi; d. near Goch, Germany, 1635. He entered the army at a very early age, and in 1624, was appointed by King Philip IV ambassador to the imperial court at Vienna, where he soon succeeded in acquiring the esteem of Ferdi- nand II and his ministers. In 1629 he was recalled from Vienna and sent to Brussels in place nf Cardinal de la Cueva, ambas.sador to the Infanta Is.aliclla. His chief duty there consisted in keeping the king posted in regard to the conditions in the Netherlands, in supervising the royal officials, and in watching over the disbursements of Spanish funds. He soon discov- ered the chief fault of the preceding administration and endeavoured to concede to the Belgians a much larger share in the administration of their country's affairs, for he realized that only by such a show of confidence could they be kept loyal to the empire. He also proposed, though without success, to transfer the general management of Belgian affairs from Mail- rid to Brus.sels. In 1630hewasappointed commander- in-chief of the navy, in 1632 of the entire army, and in 1634, after the death of the Infanta, governor of Bel- gium, until relieved by the arrival of Prince Cardinal Ferdinand. His crowning and final achievement as military commander was the liberation of Breda, the citizens of which ordered memorial coins struck in his honour. The following year he accompanied the car- dinal on an expedition into the Duchy of Cleves, where he died after a short illness at the siege of Goch. He had an amiable character, knew how to guide men according to his own desires, and combined great shrewdness and firmness with wise moderation. He wrote a valuable history of the expedition of the Cata- lonians and Aragonians against the Turks and Greeks (Barcelona, 1623; Madrid, 1777, 1805, 1883; Paris, 1841, in "Tesoro de los historiadores cspanoles"). We furthermore possess from his pen the "Vida de Anicio Manlio Torquato Severino Boecio", which was printed (PVankfort, 1642) seven years after his death.
Biuo. Nat., I (Brussels, 1866), 578-590.
Mondino (a diminutive for Raimondo; Mundinus) DEI Lucci, anatomist, b. probably at Bologna, about 1275; d. there, about 1327. Mondino performed a series of public dissections at the University of Bo- logna in the early part of the fourteenth century. He is sometimes said to have performed only two or three dis- sections, but his owii writings refute this. He is often proclaimed the first to have performed dissections in modern timos, but Haeser says that many anatomists dissected before his time, and that we have even a manual of dissection written before this, by one Ricardus. Mondino systematized dissection, and wrote a manual called " Anathomia", which was used in nearly all medical schools for three centuries after his time. Its popularity can be judged from the edi- tions Lssued after the invention of printing. There is one at Pa via (1478) , Bologna ( 1 482) , and Padua( 1 484) ; there are Venice editions of 1494, 1498, 1500, and 1.507; Leipzig (1505), Strasburg (1509), and Marburg and