yywtrit of God (Rom., i, 32; cf. i, 19): tho higher they went, the more terribly they fell: but, alongside of the tragic tirst chapter of I'aul's Kpistlc, is the second, and we dare not forget that the elect people, the Eldest Son, the heir of oracles and law, fell equally or worse, and made the name of God to be blasphemed among the Gentiles it contemned (Horn., ii, 24). Yet for all that, God used the Jews in his plan, and none will dare to say He did not use the Gentiles. They reveal them- selves in history as made for God, and restless till they rest in him. History shows us their effort, and their failure; we thank God for the one, and dare not scorn the other. God's revelation has been in many frag- ments and in many modes; and to the pagan king, whose right hand He had holden, He declared: "For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel my chosen, I have called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou, thou hast not known Me: I am Yahweh, and there is none else; beside Me there is no God: (yet) will I guide thee, though Me thou hast not known" (Is., xlv, 4 sq.). For still Cyrus worshipped at the shrine of Ahura.
C. C. Martindale.
Pagano, Mario, jurisconsult and man of letters, b. in Brienza, Province of Salerno, 8 Dec, 1748; d. at Naples, 29 Oct., 1799. At twenty he became special lecturer in moral philosophy at the University of Na- ples, at the same time practising law. He published various works on criminal juri.sprudence, e. g., "Con- siderazioni sulla procedura criminale". He became professor of law in 1787. He hkewise published in 1792 some political essays on barbarian peoples, and the origin and decadence of civilized society and of nations, revealing the idea of \'ico. As early as 1768 he had written a political review of the entire Roman legisla- tion, which was much applauded. In this is discerned the influence of Montesquieu and in general of the philosophy then in vogue. The novelty, and in part the audacity, of these theories created some enemies, and, although he enjoyed the favour of the Court, he was imprisoned. His writings, accused of irreligion, were subjected to theological examinations, which re- sulted in his favour. When in 1799 the PVench estab- lished the republic at Naples, Pagano was one of the most active. He wrote the constitution, built up on the remains of the French Constitution of 1793. On the restoration of the monarchy, Pagano was on the side of those republicans who made the last resistance at the Castel Nuovo. Contrary to the agreement of capitulation, he was imprisoned and condemned. In prison he composed aesthetic discourses and produced a number of lyric and dramatic compositions, of which only two were printed, the tragedy "Gerbino", and the melodrama "Agamemnon".
GIUSTINI.VNI. Memorie degli scrittori legati del regno di Napoli (Naples, 1787-88) ; Massa, Elogio di Pagano.
Page, Anthony, Venerable, English martyr, b. at Harrow-on-the-Hill, Middlesex, 1.571; d. at York, 20 or 30 April, 1.593. He was of gentle birth and matriculated at Oxford from Christ Church, 23 No- vember, 1581, being described as "scholaris Mri- Wodson". He entered the English College, Reims, 30 September, 1584, and received minor orders, April, 1.585. He was ordained deacon at Laon, 22 September, 1590, and prie.st at Reims, 21 Septem- ber 1591. Dr. .■\nthon}' Champney, who was his con- temporary at Reims, in his M.S. (q. v.) history of the reign of Elizabeth, as quoted by Bishop Challoner, describes him, as being of wonderful meekness, of a ^^rginal modesty and purity, and of more than com- mon learning and piety, and as liaving endeared him- self to all by his singular candour of mind and sweet- ness of behaviour. He was condemned for being a priest, under 27 EUz., c. 2., and was hanged, disem- bowelled, and quartered.
Challoner, Missionary Priests, I, no. 98; Clark, Register of Oxford University, U (Oxford, 1887-9), 105; Knox, Douay Diaries (London, 1878), 202, 205, 234. 241.
John B. Wainewright.
Page, Francis, Venerable. See Tichboknb, Thomas, Venerable.
Pagi, Antoine, and his nephew Francois, two French ecclesiastical historians. Antoine, b. 31 March, 1624, at Rognes in the Department of Houches- du-Rhone; d. 5 June, 1699 at Aix. After studying with the Jesuits at Aix. he entered the monastery of the Conventual Franciscans at Aries, and made solemn profession on 31 January, 1641. For some time he devoted himself to preaching, but at tlie age of twenty-iiiiie years he was elected provincial, an office which he held four times. He devoted his spare time to the study of history. Discerning numerous chrono- logical errors, and frequently misstatements of facts in the " Annales ecclesiastici " of Baronius, he made it his life-work to correct them and otherwise elucidate the valuable work. Pagi's first volume was printed dur- ing his lifetime (Paris, 1689) ; the remaining three vol- umes, reaching till the year 1198, the last year in the work of Baronius, were completed in manuscript shortly before his death. The whole work was edited in four volumes by his nephew Francois Pagi: "Crit- ica historico-chronologica in universos annales ecclesi- asticos em. et rev. Ca-saris Card. Baronii" (Geneva, 1705; second ed., 1727). Mansi embodied it in his edition of the "Annales" of Baronius (Lucca, 1736- 59). Though, on the whole, the "Critica" manifests great care and an unusual knowledge of history, it is not entirely free of errors. His other works are: "Dissertatio hj^patica seu de consulibus caesareis" (Lyons, 1682), printed also in "Apparatus in Annales ecclesiasticos" (Lucca, 1740), pp. 1-136; "Disser- tatio de die et anno mortis S. Martini cp. turonensis", and a few minor treatises in defense of his "Disserta- tio hypatica", in which he had set down various rules for determining the consulship of the Roman empe- rors, and which had been attacked by Cardinal Noris and others. He also edited: "D. Antonii Paduani O. Min. sermones hactenus inediti" (Avignon, 1685).
Francois, b. 7 September, 1654, at Lambesc in Provence; d. 21 January, 1721, at Orange. After studying with the Oratorians at "Toulon, he became a Conventual Franciscan, was three times provincial, and assisted his uncle in the correction of the "An- nales" of Baronius. Besides editing the "Critica" of his uncle he wrote a history of the popes up to the year 1447: "Breviarium historico-chronologico-criti- cum illustriora Pontificum romanorum gesta, con- ciliorum generalium acta . . . complectens" (4 vols., Antwerp, 1717-27). The history was continued in two volumes by his nephew, Antoine Pagi, the Younger (Antwerp, 1748-53).
Mimoires de Trevoux (Trdvouj, 1711). 1512-39, 1903-31; (1712) 273-291; (1717), 1939-67; Apparatus in Annales Baronii, p. xvii; Bihliolheque ancienne et moderne, VII, 119-200; XXVIH, 211-228; Journal des Savants, LXII, 189-198; LXV. 274-280.
Pagnani, Clement. See Kandy, Diocese of.
Pagnino, Santes (or XantbsI, Dominican, b. 1470 at Lucca, Tu.scany; d. 24 Aug., 1541, at Lyons, one of the leading philologists and Biblicists of his day. At sixteen he took the religious habit at Fiesole, where he studied under the direction of Savonarola and other eminent profes.sors. In acquiring the Oriental lan- guages, then cultivateil ,at Florence, he displayed uii- wonted quicksightediiess, ea.se, and penetration. His genius, industry, and erudition won him influential friends, among them the Cardinals de'.Medici, subse- quently Leo X and Clement VII. As a sacred oi;ator his zeal and eloquence kept abreast with his erudition and were as fruitful. Summoned to Rome by Leo X, he taught at the recently opened free school for Orien- tal languages until his patron's death (1521). He then