Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/262

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BALDBED


220


BALDWIN


Baldred, Smnt, (1) a Celtic Bishop of Strathclyde, b. about 643; d. at Aldhame, Haddingtonshire, about 607. He is said to have been the immediate suc- cessor of the great St. Kentigem, or Mungo, the founder of the See of Glasgow, Scotland. Like St. Kentigern. he was of Irish ancestrj', but is reckoned as a British saint, inasmuch as Strathclyde was part of Britain. The clironologj- of the period when he flourished is somewhat obscure, but the best au- thorities on Scottish historj- agree that St. Baldred was born towards the middle of the sixth centurj-. Previous to liis consecration. St. Baldred had laboured for many years in Strathclyde. and had founded numerous houses for monks as also for holy virgins in addition to the churches of Aldhame. Tyinguham and Preston Kirk. Owing to the disturbed state of the kingdom, he was forced after a short rule to re- tire from the spiritual government of the Strathclyde Britons as also happened to his predecessor. His feast is observed on 6 March. (2) B.\ldred, or B.\LTHERt's, a holy hermit-priest of the eighth cen- turj-, who has been confoimded with the preceding Scottish saint. According to Simeon of Durham and Hovendeus the date of his death is given as 756. Turgot of Durham is more explicit, and he tells us that Baldred. or Balthertis, the priest, died "in the seventeenth year of the episcopate of CjTiulf ", that is 756, or on the 6 March. 757. This Baldred is asso- ciated with the See of Lindisfarne, and was an Eng- lishman. Numerous miracles are ascribed to him, and his feast is given as 6 March.

To add to the confusion, some \\Titers have im- agined that this Baldred is identical with Bilfritt, or Bilfrid, a hermit goldsmith, whose exquisite work may yet be seen in the British Museum on the cover of a Book of Gospels, generally known as the Gospels of St. Cuthbert. This cover was made during the rule of Bishops Eadfrid and Ethelwold of Lindis- farne, 698 to 740. The relics of St. Bilfrid were discovered by Aelfrid, and were placed, with those of St. Baldred, in St. Cuthbert 's shrine at Durham, but were subsequentlj' transferred to the shrine of St. Bedeinll04.

CoMERARiu-s, quoted in Forbe, Kalendar of Scottish Saints; BoETivs. Hist. Scot.: Reg. Ep. Glas.. II; Gh.u.mer. Caledonia; Lesley. De Orig. Mor.. et Rebits GeM. Scot. ; Butler, Lives of the Saints (March 6).

.■l<-(a SS. (March 6), I; B.UincG Gould. Lites of the Saints, III; Turcot, Hist, of Dunelon; O'Hanlox, Lives of the Irish Saints (March), III.

W. H. Gr-\ttax Flood.

Baldung. H.vn's, known as Griex or GrCn, from his fondness for briUiant green, both in his own costume and in his pictures, a vigorous and dis- tinguished painter, engraver, and draughtsman on wood, b. at Gmund, Swabia, about 1476; d. at Strasburg, 1545. Baldimg was a lifelong friend of Dflrer and received a lock of the latter 's hair when he died. Durer influenced Baldung's. work, as did Matthaeus Griinewald and Martin Schongauer. His portraits, when unsigned, have at times passed as the work of that greater master. Diirer. An exceptional draughtsman and a good colourist, Baldung's work is marked by an original and fertile imagination. He is thought to have worked with Diirer at Xurem- berg for two years, assisting him and painting under his eye the copies of "Adam and Eve' now in the Pitti Gallerj' at Florence. He became a citizen of Strasburg in 1509, and was made senator the year of his death.

Baldimg spent seven years at Freiburg in the Breis- gau, where, in a monasterj-, is found his most famous work, an altar piece, the central portion showing "The Coronation of the Virgin", the wings bearing on the inside the Apostles and on the outside four scenes from the life of Our Lady. Two altar pieces in the Convent of Lichenthal, near Baden-Baden, are assumed to be his earliest works. Baldung's paint-


ings are chiefly in public galleries at Berlin, Vieima, Munich, Stuttgart, Prague, Darmstadt, Basle, Karls- ruhe, Aschaffenburg, and Frankfort. In the Berlin Museum are "Christ on the Cross (two pictures), a triptych "Adoration of the Ivings", with saints on the interior and exterior of the wings, and "The Stoning of Saint Stephen"; in the Munich Pinako- thek, the portrait of his friend. Margrave Phillipp Christoph of Baden; at Vienna in the iluseum, the "Portrait of a Young Man", and a portrait of him- self in green; in the Academy, a "Holy Family": in the Liechtenstein Gallery, "The Ages of Man in Six Female Figures", and a "Madonna"; in the Schonborn Gallerj', "Adam and Eve".

Ch.vmpllx .4ND Perkins, Cyclopedia of Painters and Paint- ing (\ew York. 1SS6-S71: Brtax. Dictionary of Painters and Engravers (London and New York, 1903-03).

ArcrsTUS V.vx Cleef.

Baldwin I-II. See Coxst.vntixople.

Baldwin I-'V. See Jerus-vle-m, IvrxGocM of.

Baldwin, Archbishop of Trier and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, b. 1'2S5; d. 1354; he belonged to the noble family of the Coimts of Luxemburg, or Liitzelburg. and was a brother of the Emperor Henrj- VII. When he was only three years of age. his father. Coimt Henrj' III, was killed in battle. The charge of Baldwin's education, therefore, devolved on his mother, Beatri.x of Aves- nes, and his brother, the future emf>eror. Being exceptionally talented, he was sent at the early age of thirteen to the University of Paris, where, under the direction of two private tutors, he re- ceived a thorough education. In 1305, when the Archbishop of Mainz died, Henry wished to pro- cure tliis archiepiscopal see and electorate for his brother, and sent his former physician, Peter Aich- spalter, then Bishop of Basle, to Pope Clement V. at Avignon, with instructions to use his influence in behalf of Baldwin. The pope, however, refused to entrust the most important archiepiscopal see of Germany to a youth who was then only nineteen years old. When Aiclispalter, shortly after, cured the pope of a severe sickness, he was himself made Archbishop of Mainz, with the understanding, it seems, that Baldwin was to succeed the aged .Arch- bishop Diether of Trier. Accordingly, when Diether died in 1307, Baldwin became .Archbishop and Elector of Trier. He was consecrated , 1 1 March , 1 308, at Poitiers by the pope himself and took possession of his archbishopric on the 2d of June, in the same year.

Though only twenty-two years old, Baldwin had many qualities which fitted liim for the triple office of bishop, prince, and elector. Without le\'j'ing special taxes he paid off within a short time the many debts incurred by his predecessor, and he fearlesslj- asserted his rights of sovereignty over the refractory municipal authorities of Trier. Shortly after the new archbishop's consecration the Emperor Albert was murdered (ilay, 130S). and Baldwin, acting with Archbishop .Aiclispalter of Mainz, prevailed upon the other electors to award the imperial crown to Henrj' of Luxemburg. During the short reign of Henrj' VII (1309-13) Baldwin was his brother's most influential adviser and accompanied him in his expeditions tlirough the empire and to Rome. After Henrjs death he desired as emperor his nephew, King John of Bohemia, then only eighteen years old. However, seeing the futility of his efforts to win the otlier electors for Iving John, and fearing the election of Frederick of Austria, who was hostile to the house of Luxemburg, Baldwin urged the election of Louis of Bavaria. But all his attempts to gain over the opposing electors were unsuccessful, and a double election resulted. During the ci\il war of eight years which ensued he fought on the side of Louis