Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/415

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of St. Evroul (Ebrulphus) in the Diocese of Lisieux, founded about 560 by St. Evroul, a native of Bayeux, is famous as the home of Ordericus Vitalis, the chronicler (107.5-1141). Venerable Jean Eudes founded in 1641 in Caen the congregation of Notre Dame de Charity du Refuge, which is devoted to the protection of girls and includes .3.3 monasteries in France and elsewhere. At Tilly, in the Diocese of Bayeux, Michel Vingtras established, in 1839, the politico-religious society known as La Misericorde, in connexion with the survi\'ors of La Petite Eglise, which was condemned in 1843 by Gregory XVI. Daniel Huet, the famous savant (1630-1721) and Bishop of Avranehes, was a native of Caen.

The cathedral of Bayeux (twelfth to fourteenth centuries) and of Lisieux (twelfth and thirteenth cen- turies) are inferior in point of interest to the church of St. Etienne at Caen, which is one of the most beauti- ful architectural monuments of Normandy (eleventh and twelfth centuries). The church of Notre-Dame de la D^livrande (the devotion to Our Lady of Deliver- ance dates back to the seventh century) is visited by the Bishops of Baye\ix even before they enter their own cathedral.

At the close of the year 1905 the Diocese of Bayeux included a population of 410,178, 73 pastorates, 640 mission churches, and 120 curacies remunerated by the State. According to the latest statistics (1907) obtainable, the Diocese of Bayeux has 2 infant asylums, 16 infant schools, 1 deaf-mute institute, 1 orphanage where farming is taught, 9 girls' orphanages, 4 industrial schools, 2 trades schools, 1 refuge for young women, 6 hospitals and hospices, 1 dispensary, 4 communities for the care of the sick in their homes, 3 private hospitals, 1 private insane asylum, 9 homes for the aged, all conducted by sisters; and 1 orphanage where farm- ing is taught, conducted by brothers.

In 1900 the following congregations were repre- sented in the diocese: the Franciscans at Caen and the Premonstratensians, who have an abbey at Juaye- Mondaye. Among the local congregations are the diocesan missionaries, stationed at the basilica of Notre Dame de la D^livrande, directors of several educational institutions throughout the diocese. In this diocese also was founded the congregation of Our Lady of Charity and Refuge established at Caen in 1641 by Venerable Jean Eudes for the preservation of young girls. This congregation has 33 monasteries in France and other countries.

Gallia chHetiana (,nora) (1759), XI, 346-405, 762-814, Inslrumenta. 59-106, 199-218; Acta SS. XVI, May: Lair, Etudes sur lea origines de Vcvcche de Bayeux m Bibliothique des Ecoles des Charles (1861-63); Farcy, Abbayes du diocise de Bayeux (Laval, 1886-88); Chevalier, Topo-bibl., 327-331, 1707-08; CoMTE, Tapestry of Bayeux (Paris, 1878).

Georges Goyau.

Bayle, Pierre. See Rationalism.

Bayley, James Roosevelt, first Bishop of Newark, New Jersey, U. S. A.; eighth Archbishop of Balti- more, Maryland; b. at Rye, New York, 23 August, 1814; d. at Newark, 3 October, 1877. His Dutch and English non-Catholic ancestors were locally notable. His father was the son of Dr. Richard Bayley, pro- fessor of anatomy in Columbia College, New York, and inaugurated the New York quarantine system. Mother Seton, foundress of the Sisters of Charity in the United States, was his aunt. He was named after his maternal grandfather, James Roosevelt, a mer- chant of large fortune, who made him his heir, but altered the will when Bayley became a Catholic priest, under the mistaken idea that priests could not possess property. A large part of the money went to build the Roosevelt Hospital in New York. Bayley's early school days were spent at Amherst College, where he once thought of going to sea and ob- tained a commission of midshipman in the navy. He abandoned the plan, however, and continuing his

studies, entered Trinity College, Hartford, Connecti- cut, to prepare for the Episcopalian ministry. He graduated here in 1835 and after receiving orders was appointed rector of St. Peter's church, Harlem, New York. He resigned this charge in 1841 and went to Rome, where on 28 April, 1842, he was baptized and received into the Catholic church in the room of St. Ignatius by Father Esmond, S.J. He then entered the seminary of St. Sulpice at Paris for his theological studies. Returning to New York, he was ordained priest by Bishop Hughes, 2 March, 1844, and made a professor and the vice-president of the seminary at Fordham. He was acting president there in 1846 and was next given charge of the parish at the Quarantine Station on Staten Island, so long the residence of his grandfather, Dr. Bayley. Bishop Hughes then appointed him his private secretary, an office he held for several years and in which his administrative ability was specially manifested. He devoted some of his leisure to the collection and preservation of local historical data, much of which would otherwise have been lost. Part of this material he published in a small volume "A Brief Sketch of the Early History of the Catholic Church on the Island of New York" (New York, 1853; 2nd ed., 1870).

When the Diocese of Newark was established he was named its first bishop and consecrated 30 October, 1853, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, by Arch- bishop Bedini, the Apostolic Nuncio to Brazil, who was then en route to Rome. The Bishops of Brooklyn and Burlington were consecrated at the same time, the first occurrence of such an elaborate cere- mony in the United States. Bishop Bayley's work of organizing the new diocese was not easy. He had more than 40,000 Catholics, mainly of Irish and German extraction, with only twenty-five priests to minister to them. There was not a single diocesan institution, no funds, and poverty on all sides. He therefore applied for help to the Association of the Propagation of the Faith of Lyons, France, and to the Leopoldine Association of Vienna and from both re- ceived material assistance. In a letter he wrote 10 April, 1865, reviewing the condition of the dio- cese after his first ten years there he says: "I find that while the Catholic population has mcreased a third, the churches and priests have doubletl in number. In 1854 there was no religious community. Now we have a monastery of Benedictines, another of Passionists, a mother-house of Sisters of Charity, conducting seventeen different establishments; two convents of Benedictine nuns, two others of German Sisters of Notre Dame and two others of the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis. In 1854 there was no institution of learning; to-day we have a flourishing college and a diocesan seminary, an academy for young ladies, a boarding school for boys, and parish schools attached to almost all the parishes." In ad- dition to these he introduced the Jesuits and the Sisters of St. Joseph and of St. Dominic into the diocese, and was one of the strongest upholders of the temperance movement of the seventies. He made several journeys to Rome and the Holy Land, attend- ing the canonization of the Japanese martyrs at Rome in 1862; the centenary of the Apo.stles in 1867; and the (Ecumenical Council in 1869.

At the death of Archbishop Spalding of Baltimore he was promoted, on 30 July, 1872, to succeed that, prelate. He left Newark with much reluctance. In 1875 as Apostolic Delegate he imposed the cardinal's biretta on Archbishop McCloskey of New York. In May, 1876, he consecrated the Baltimore cathedral, having freed it from debt. Convening the Eighth Provincial Synod of the clergy, August, 1875, he enacted many salutary regulations, particularly with regard to clerical dress, mixed marriages, and church music. Illness obliged him to ask for a coadjutor and Bishop Gibbons of Richmond was appointed to