wrote "The History, Life, and Miracles of Joane of the Cross" (St.-Omer, 1625). He also translated from the Spanish of Andrew a Soto "A brief Instruc- tion how we ought to hear Mass" (Brussels, 1624). „.'^?;.*°?,'i'-*- The Franciscans in England (London, 1S9S), V, 35. 36; VI. .39; VII. 47. 49, 50; IX, 62. 66-68; XV, 200-202; Angelds a S. Francisco (Richard Mason), Ceriamen Ser- aphicum (Quaracchi. 1885), 127-157; Obtolani, De causis be- atorum et servorum Dei ord. min. (Quaracchi, 1905), 14.
Stephen M. Donovan. Bell, James, priest and martyr, b. at Warring- ton in Lancashire, England, probably about 1520; d. 20 April, 1584. For the little known of him we depend on the account published four years after his death by Bridgewater in his "Concertatio" (1588), and derived from a manuscript which was kept at Douay when Challoner wrote his " Missionary Priests" in 1741, and is now in the Westminster Diocesan Archives. A few further details were collected by Challoner, and others are supplied by the State Papers. Having studied at Oxford he -was ordained priest in Mary's reign, but unfortunately ■conformed to the established Church under Eliza- beth, and according to the Douay MS. "ministred their bare few sacraments about 20 years in diverse places of England". Finally deterred by conscience from the cure of souls and reduced to destitution, he sought a small readership as a bare subsistence. 'To obtain this he approached the patron's wife, a ■Catliolic lady, who induced him to be reconciled to the Church. After some time he was allowed to resume priestly functions, and for two years devoted liimself to arduous missionary labours' He was at length apprehended (17 January, 1583-84) and, hav- ing confessed his priesthood, was arraigned at Man- chester Quarter Sessions held during the same month, and sent for trial at Lancaster Assizes in March. When condemned and sentenced he said to the Judge: " I beg your Lordship would add to the sentence that my lips and the tops of my fingers may be cut ■off, for having sworn and subscribed to the articles of heretics contrary both to my conscience and to God's Truth". He spent that night in prayer and ■on the following day was lianged and quartered together with Ven. John Finch, a layman, 20 April, 1584.
Bridgewater, Concertatio ecclesia Calholicm in Anglia, 1588; Yepez, Historia particular de la persecucion de Inglaterra, 1599; Challoner, Missionary Priests, 1741; Diet. Nat. Bion., IV, 163; GiLLow, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath., I, 173, citing State Papers in Public Record Office.
Bellamy, Jerome, of Uxenden Hall, near London, England, d. 1586, a member of an old Catholic family noted for its hospitality to missionaries and recusants. He was a warm sympathizer with Mary ■Queen of Scots. In the latter years of the sixteenth century the Babington plot to free Mary and as- ■sassinate Elizabeth was exposed, and Babington, with two of his fellow-conspirators, Barnewell and Donne, sought refuge in Bellamy's house. He concealed them and was later arrested with them and accused ■of complicity in the plot. All four were indicted, tried, con\'icted 15 September, 1586, and witliin six ■days thereafter executed.
GlLLOW, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath., I. 176.
Thomas Gaffnev Taaffe.
BeUarini, John, Bamabite theologian, b. at ■Castelnuovo, Italy, in 1552; d. at Milan, 27 August, 1630. He was Visitor and twice Assistant General of his order. He taught theology at Padua and Rome, and was highly esteemed by bishops and cardinals, particularly by Gregorj' XV. Best known as a moral theologian, he has left a number of solid theological treatises, the most valuable of which is a commentary on the Council of Trent and the Roman Catechism, in two parts, forming two dis- ■tinct volumes. The first, for the instruction of the
faithful, is entitled "Doctrina d. Concilii Tndei'- tini et Cathechismi Roinani de SjTObolo Apostolo- rum" (Brescia, 1603). The parts of this work relat- ing to the decalogue have been published in French. The second work, designed for the conversion of heretics, and entitled "Doctrina Catholica ex Sacro Concilio Trideutino et Catechismo Romano" (Milan, 1620), has passed through several editions. BeUarini also composed a number of booklets in Itahan for con- fessors and penitents, and a treatise on the doctrine of St. Thomas on physical predetermination and on the determination in general of all things and causes into active operation (Milan, 1606). He is also the author of a work on method (Milan, 1606), which was republished under a slightly different title, along with his "Mirror of Divine and Human Wisdom" (Milan, 1630).
Mangenot in Diet, de thiol cath., II, 559; Bibliotheca Scripto- rum e Cong. Cler. Regid. S. Pauli (Rome, 1836), 140.
S. H. Frisbee.
Bellannine (Bellarmino), Robert Francis Romulus, Venerable, a distinguished Jesuit the- ologian, \\Titer, and cardinal, b. at Montepulciano, 4 October, 1.542; d. 17 September, 1621. His father was Vincenzo Bellarmino, his mother Cinthia Cervini. sister of Cardinal Marcello Cervini, afterwards Pope Marcellus II. He was brought up at the newly founded Jesuit college in his na- tive town, and en- tered the Society of Jesus on 20 September, 1560, being admitted to his first vows on the following day. The next three years he spent in studying philoso- phy at tne Roman College, after which he taught the humanities first at Florence, then at Mondovi. In 1567 he began his theology at
Padua, but in 1569 was sent to finish it at Lou- vain, where he could obtain a fuller acquaintance with the prevailing heresies. Having been or- dained there, he quickly obtained a reputation both as a professor and a preacher, in the latter capacity drawing to his pulpit both Catholics and Protestants, even from distant parts. In 1576 he was recalled to Italy, and entrusted with the chair of Controversies recently founded at the Roman Col- lege. He proved himself equal to the arduous task, and the lectures thus delivered grew into the work "De Controversiis" which, amidst so much else of excellence, forms the chief title to his greatness. This monumental work was the earliest attempt to systematize the various controversies of the time, and made an immense impression throughout Europe, the blow it dealt to Protestantism being so acutely felt in Germany and England that special chairs were founded in order to provide replies to it. Nor has it even yet been superseded as the classical book on its subject-matter, though, as was to be expected, the progress of criticism has impaired the value of some of its historical arguments.
In 1588 Bellarmine was made Spiritual Father to the Roman College, but in 1590 he went with Cardi- nal Gaetano as theologian to the embassy Sixtus V