Commentarionim Caroli Sebastiani Berardi in Can- ones Gratiani. (2) "De Variis Sacrorum Canonum Collectionibus ante Gratianum", published to- gether with his first work. (3) "Commentaria in Jus Ecelesiasticum t'niversuni", four vols, quarto, Turin, 1766; two vols, octavo, Venice, 1778, 1789; 1847). — This is an excellent treatise from the view- point both of theorj- and practice. (4) "Institu- tiones JiU'is Ecclesiastici" (2 vols. Turin, 1769), a work that is to be read with caution.
Weurxz. Jus Decretalhtm (Rome. 1S9S), I. n. 313, 396, 397; ScHULTE. Die GeschichU d. Quellen, III, par. 1. 524; ValL-\uri, Storia delle UniversUa degli Studi del Piemonte, III, 219.
A. B. Meehan.
Berault-Bercastel, Axtoine Henri de, a writer of church historv', b. 22 November, 1720, at Briey, Lorraine; d. about 1794 at Noyon, France. At an early age he entered the Society of Jesus, but left it after his ordination to the priesthood. He was made parish priest of Omer\-ille and later a canon of Noyon. His most important work is entitled " Histoire de I'^glise" and was issued at Paris, 177S-90, in twenty- four volumes. The history gives a circumstantial account of the Church from the time of its founding up to the year 1721. It is not so much intended for students and learned investigators as for educated Christians, and especially for those priests whose professional cares do not allow them time to carrj' on higher studies. On account of its general use- fulness his work has had a large circulation; in spite of many defects, especially in the later volumes, it has often been republished, as at Maastricht (1780- 91), at Toulouse (1811). It has also been translated into foreign languages; it was published in Itahan at Venice (1793), and in German at Vienna (1784). Various scholars have continued the historj' or have issued it in a condensed form. Instances are the edition of Guillen (Besangon, and Paris, 1820-21), that of Pelier de la Croix (Ghent, 1829-33), and that of Robiano (Lyons and Paris, 1835 and 1842). The best edition, with a continuation up to 1844, was edited by Henrion (Paris. 1844). The best con- densed edition was edited by Gams (Innsbruck, 1854-60). HuRTER, Nomendaior. Ill, 347.
Bercharius (Bererus), S.uxt, Abbot of Haut- \-iIlers in Champagne, b. 636; d. 28 March, 696. Descended from a distinguished Aquitanian family, he received his instruction from St. Nivard (Nivo), Archbishop of Reims, under whose charge he ad- vanced rapidly in virtue and learning. Believing himself called to the sacred ministrj-, he entered the monastery of Luxeuil under St. Walbert, and by his humble and faithful performance of duty soon excelled his fellow-novices. L'pon his return to Reims he induced St. Nivard to erect the cloister of Hautvillers, of which Bercharius himself became the first abbot. VTlioUy given up to prayer and medi- tation he also instructed his brethren to lead a con- templative life. Ever zealous for the propagation of the Faith, he founded two cloisters in the Diocese of Chalons-sur-Marne, the one (Puisye or Moutier-en- Der) for men, the other (Pellmoutier, Puellarum Monaster iiim) for women. These institutions he en- riched by donations of valuable relics, procured on a journey to Rome and the Holy Land,
The monk Daguin, pro\oked by a reprimand from Bercharius, stabbed him during the night. No word of complaint or censure did he utter when the murderer was led before him; but he gloried in ex- horting the transgressor to penance and in requesting him to make a pilgrimage to Rome to obtain pardon and absolution. Daguin left the monastery never to return. After two days of severe suffering, the saint succumbed to his wound, a martjT not for the Faith, indeed, but for charity and justice. His
remains were preserved at Moutier-en-Der imtil the suppression of religious orders at the close of the eighteenth century. The commemoration of his name occurs in the martjTologj' on the 16th of October.
BuTLEB, XV, 252; Adso, Vita S. Bercharii; Sorius, X, 481 . B.U?X.\B.\S DiERINGER,
Bercheure (Berchoire, Bersuire), Pierre, a learned French Benedictine, b. 1290 at St. Pierre du Chemin C^'endee); d. 1362 at Paris. He joined the Order of St. Benedict at Maillezais, later lived at Avignon for a period of twelve years with Cardinal Peter de Pratis, Bishop of Praeneste, and in 1354 was made prior of St. Eligius at Paris. He was an elo- quent preacher and a voluminous homiletical wTiter. His most important work is the "Repertorium mo- rale", for the use of preachers, a kind of Biblico-moral dictionary, in which the principal words of Scripture are arranged alphabetically and moral reflections attached thereto. It appeared some time before 1355 and was dedicated to Cardinal de Pratis. The Repertorium" proved to be one of the most popular books of its kind and was frequently printed — first at Cologne in 1477, and again at Nuremberg (14891, Lyons (1517), Paris (1521), Venice (1589), Antwerp (1609), etc. A French translation by Richard Le- blanc appeared at Paris in 1584. Other works of Bercheure are: "Reductorium morale" to the Sacred Scriptiu-es in thirtj--four books, embracing all the books of the Bible, printed at Strasburg in 1474, Basle (1515), Lyons (1536); "Inductorium morale biblicum"; sixteen books on God and the world; and a French translation (the earliest) of Li\'y, made about 1350 at the request of King John the Good — published at Paris in 1514 in three volumes. His "Inductorium morale biblicum", commentaries, discourses, letters, and other treatises, have never been printed. Editions of his collected works ap- peared at Lvons (1520), Venice (1583, 1631), Cologne (1650, 1669), etc.
G.^CTIER in Actes acad, Bordeaux (1844). VI, 495; Pannier, in Bibl. de lee. d. Charles (1872), XXXIII. 325-364; Chev.i- LIER. Bio-biblwffraphie. s. v. Bersuire: BR.\rN.MuLLER in Kir- cheniex., II, 389; Ziegelbauer, Hist, rei litt. Ord. S. Ben., III. 183 sqq.
Berchmans, S.unt Johx. See John Berchmans.
Berchtold (Berthold), Blessed, Abbot of the Benedictine Monasterj- of Engelberg in Switzerland; date of birth unknown; d. 3 November, 1197. Be- fore becoming abbot he was a monk at Engelberg and a favourite disciple of the learned abbot. Blessed Frowin. When Frowin was on the point of dying he advised his monks to elect the pious Berchtold as liis successor. Accordingly, after Frowin's death, which occurred 27 March, 1178, Berchtold was chosen abbot. Following in Frowin's footsteps, he was intent on maintaining strict monastic discipline, the importance of which he inculcated by his own example. Nor did he neglect, at the same time, to en- courage his monks in the pursuit of Divine and human knowledge. By his order they reproduced many old writings, some of which are still extant in the librarj- of Engelberg. The more learned monks were encouraged to write original works. When Abbot Burchard openly taught that the souls of the just had gone to heaven before the Resurrection of Christ, Berchtold himself wrote "Apologia contra errorem Burchardi Abbatis S. Joannis in Thurthal seu Vallis Taurine", in which he shows himself not only well versed in Holy Scriptures and the writings of the Fathers, but also a master in theological knowledge and dialectical skill. Abbot Burchard became con- vinced of his error, retracted, and died a saintly death. Though especially mindful of the spiritual and intellectual advancement of his monks. Berch-