Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/562

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BERNARD

498

BERNARD


citations, its forms of condemnation, its instructions for examinations, constitute a unique document for the study of the Inquisition during the first period of its existence. This work, lost for a time, was published later in extenso by l'abbé Douais, "Practica Inquisitionis hæreticæ pravitatis, auctore Bernardo Guidonis (Toulouse, 1886). Bernard is also the author of a number of theological treatises; "Abreg^ de la doctrine chr^tienne", "Traits de la messe", "Traits sur la conception de la Vierge", and also of different sermons.

Delisle, Notice sur les manuscrits de Bernard-Guy in Coll. {Paris, 1879), XXVII; Molinier, L'inquisition dans le midi de la France au XIII et au XIV siècle (Paris, 1880).

M. DE MOREIRA.

Bernard of Besse, Friar Minor and chronicler, a native of Aquitaine, date of birth uncertain; he belonged to the custody of Cahors and was secretary to St. Bonaventure. He took up the pen after the Seraphic Doctor, he tells us, to gather the cars the latter had dropped from his sheaf, lest anj-thing of so great a memory as that of St. Francis might perish. His "Liber de Laudibus Beati Francisci" composed about 1280, besides a r^simi^ of some of the earlier, legends, contains brief and valuable in- formation about the companions of St. Francis and the foimdation of tlie three Franciscan Orders, and is the only thirteenth-century document which specifies the first biographies of St. Francis. About 1297-1300 he compiled a catalogue of the ministers general up to his time, which is also a source of much importance for the study of Franciscan history. Critical editions of both these works have been pub- lished by the Friars Minor of Quaracchi [In Analecta Franciscana, III (1897), 666-707] and by Father Hilarin Felder of Lucerne, O. M. Cap. "Liber de Laudibus" etc. (Rome, 1897). Bernard also WTote the life of Blessed Christopher of Cahors inserted in the "Chronica XXIV Generalium" (ed. Quarac- chi, 1897, 161-173) and is very probably the author of the "Speculum Disciplinae" and of the "Epistola ad Quendam Novitiurn" erroneously attributed to St. Bonaventure (See Bonav. Opera Omnia ed. Quaracclii, 1898, VIII, 583 sqq. and 663 sqq.).

Wadding, Scriptores Ord. Minorum (1650), 59, and Sharalea. Supplementum (1806), 135; Fabricius, Bib. Med. Aev. (1734), 218; Danou, Hist. Litt. France (1838), XIX, 437; Ehrle in Zeitachr. f. kath. Theol. (1883), VII, 767-774; Denifle, Archiv. f. Litt. und Kirchengesch. des M. A. (1885). I, 145 sqq. and 630 sqq.. also Misc. Francescana (1886), I, 1 sqq.; Othon, L'Aquitaine Séraphique (1900), I, passim.

Paschal Robinson.

Bernard (or Bernardine) of Bologna (Floviano Toselli), Friar Minor Capuchin and Scotist theologian, b. at Bologna, 17 December, 1701; d. 19 February, 1768. In 1717 he entered the Capuchin Order and some years later filled successively the offices of professor of moral and dogmatic theology and several times held positions of responsibility. Perhaps the best known of Bernard of Bologna's writings is the "Bibliotheca Scriptorum O. Min. S. Francisci Cap.", a work which resembles Wadding's well-known "Scriptores Ord. Min." It was published at Venice in 1747, and an appendix appeared at Rome in 1852. Besides this work Bernard wrote an elementary treatise on philosophy according to Duns Scotus entitled "Institutio Philosophica præmittenda theologiæ" (Venice, 1766), and a treatise on dogmatic theology, "Institutio Theologica" (Venice, 1746). He is also the author of a "Phrasarium S. Scripturæ" composed for the use of preachers and authors.
Hurter, Nomenclator, III, 6.

Stephen M. Donovan.

Bernard of Botone, generally called Parmensis from his birthplace, Parma in Italy, a noted canonist of the thirteenth century; date of birth unknown; d. 1203, or. according to Hurtcr, 24 March, 1266.


Under Tancred he studied in Bologna, where later he accepted the chair of canon law. Here Durantis was his disciple. Bernard obtained a canonry in the Cathedral of Bologna, and was also named chap- lain to Popes Innocent IV and Alexander IV, by whom he was employed in solving questions of weight. According to the inscription on his tombstone he was Chancellor of the University of Bologna. Ber- nard found ample scope for his literary activity in his chosen branch, canon law. From glosses, summaries, and similar works, which had appeared on the Decretals of Gregory IX and other collections, he completed, just before his death, a work on the Gregorian Decretals. Tliis, owing to his exact knowl- edge of former collections and thorough grasp of his subject, won for him the admiration of his con- temporaries; so that he was styled "Glossator", and his work, commonly known as "Glossa Ordi- naria", became the fruitful .source of later glosses, which were printed with Gregory's collection. Ber- nard was careful to note what he had taken from others, while his own comments were signed "Bern." The "Glossa Ordinaria" was given to the press in Mainz in 1472, 1473, and in Rome in 1474. In this Roman edition there are additions, especially from the "Novella Commentaria" of Giovanni Andrea (d. 1348). Bernard's "Casus Longi" on separate chapters of the same Gregorian Decretals is equally meritorious. It w-as frequently edited: Paris, 1475; Venice, 1477; Bologna, 1487; Strasburg, 1488, 1493; Lyons, 1500. Another work, entitled "Summa super Titulis Decretalium", was based on similar writings of his master, Tancred, of Bernard of Pavia and others. It is a clear, concise treatise, found in the works of Nicolaus de Tudeschis (Milan, five volumes in folio).

Hurter, Nomenclator, IV, coll. 290, 291; Leurin. Introductio in Corpus Juris Canonici (Freiburg, 18S9), 149, 1. ( ; ScHULTE, Die Geschichte der Quellen und Lit. des kanonisclu n Rechts (Stuttgart, 1875-80,) II, 114–117.

Andrew B. Meehan.

Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint, b. in 1090, at

Fontaines, near Dijon, France; d. at Clairvaux, 21 August, 11.53. His parents were Tescelin, Lord of Fontaines, and Aleth of Montbard, both belonging to the highest nobility of Burgundy. Bernard, the third of a family of seven children, six of whom were sons, was educated with particular care, because, while yet unborn, a devout man had foretold his great destiny. At the age of nine years, Bernard was sent to a much renowned school at Chatillon-sur- Seine, kept by the Secular Canons of Saint-Vorles. He had a great taste for literature and devoted him- self for some time to poetry. His success in his studies won the admiration of his masters, and his growth in virtue was no less marked. Bernard's great desire was to excel in literature in order to take up the study of Sacred Scripture, which later on became, as it were, his own tongue. " Piety was his all", says Bossuet. He had a special devotion to the Blessed Virgin, and there is no one who speaks more sublimely of the Queen of Heaven. Bernard was scarcely nineteen years of age when his mother died. During his youth, he did not escape trying temptations, but his virtue triumphed over them, in many instances in a heroic manner, and from this time he thought of retiring from the world and h\ing a life of solitude and prayer.

St. Robert, Abbot of Molesmes, had founded, in 1098, the monastery of Citeaux, about four leagues from Dijon, with the purpose of restoring the Rule of St. Benedict in all its rigour. Returning to Molesmes, he left the government of the new abbey to St. Alberic, who died in the year 1 109. St. Stephen had just succeeded him (1113) as third Abbot of Citeaux, when Bernard with thirty young noblemen of Burgundy, sought admission into the order. Three