Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 2.djvu/873

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BRITISH
BRIXEN
793

Indian boys and girls at Kuper Island and among the Songhees of Victoria, and the Benedictine Fathers and Sisters conduct Indian schools on the i\est coast of the Island. On the mainland, identical institu- tions are to be found at St. Mary's Mission, North Vancouver, Sechelt, Kamloops, William's Lake, and Kootenay. These schools for the natives are sup- ported, not always adequately, by the Federal Gov- ernment of Canada. New Westminster, Vancouver, Cranbrook, and Greenwood each boast of a well- equipped hospital; New Westminster is the seat of St. Louis College, and Vancouver, in addition to a flourishing academy conducted by the Sisters of St. .\nn, has a House of Refuge under the care of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd.

The public scliools are on the American model and aiding religious institutions through grants or general exemption from taxes is prohibited. By virtue of an Act passed by Parliament after a signal public service rendered by the Sisters of St. Ann, the latter's Academy at Victoria enjoys freedom from such an encumbrance, and Church property may also be more or less favoured in this respect by special legislation on the part of the city councils. The clergy cannot be drafted into a jury or coerced into militan,' service, though they may be allowed to serve if they so wish. Attending the provincial penitentiary and asylum for the insane, there are Catholic and Protestant chaplains paid by the federal authorities. Churches can be incorporated, and are then recognized as eligible for bequests and to ac- quire and possess property. While divorce in Canada is generally granted onl}' by the Dominion Senate, the Supreme Court of British Columbia has juris- diction over that issue, because at the time this province entered the Confederation, it was left free to enjov the privileges it then possessed.

Hist, 'of B. C. (San Francisco, 1890); Begg, Hisl. of B. C. (Toronto, 1894); Morice, Au pays de lours noir (Paris, 1S97); La Colombie briltannique in Les missions caiholiqucs franfaises au XIXe siicle (Paris, 1903); The Hisl. of the Northern Interior of B. C. (Toronto, 1904); Gosnell. The Year Book of B. C. (Victoria, 1903); W.^de, 7"ie Thompson Country (Kamloops, 1907).

A. G. Morice.

British Guiana. See Gui.iNA, British.

Britius, Francis, Orientalist, and a monk of Rennes in Brittany; date of birth and death unknown. He entered the Capuchin Order and spent the earlier years of his religious life in missionary work in the Levant, where he devoted himself with special zeal to the study of Oriental languages. His proficiency in these tongues soon came to the notice of his superiors, and, being summoned to Rome, he was employed by the Congregation of the Propaganda in the translation of several important works into Arabic. The first great fruit of his labours in this field was the translation of "L'Abrégé des annales ecclésiastiques de Baronius", continued by Sponde to the year 1646. The work was published at Rome in three volumes quarto, the first of which appeared in 1653, the second in 1655, and the third in 1671. Britius had also much to do with a translation of the Bible into Arabic giving the Vulgate text in parallel columns, which was published by Mazari, at Rome, in 1671 (3 vols. fol.)

The works of Britius are now exceedingly rare, as practically the entire edition of both translations was sent to the East for use in the work of the missions.

Biogr. Univ., V, 629.


Brittain, Thomas Lewis, b. near Chester, Eng- land, 1744; d. at Hartpury Court, 1827. His (larents were Protestants, but at the age of sixteen 'I homas became a ('atholic. Shortly after his conversion he went to Picardv to purstie his studies, and later joined the Dominicans at Bornheim, where he made his profession 22 October, 1767. His studies were


continued at Louvain, and subsequently he taught with marked success at Bornheim, where he was made regent of studies. In 1790 the doctor's cap, with title of Master of Sacred Theologj', was conferred on him. The same year he was transferred to Brussels, where he became director of the exiled English Dominican nuns, an office he held for thirty-seven years. In 1794. when the French army was expected at Brussels, Father Brittain conducted the sisters to Bornheim, whence, joined by eighteen Dominican fathers, they were conducted by an American captain to England. Father Brittain secured a foundation for the sisters at Hartpury Covu't near Gloucester. On 3 May, 1814, he was elected pro\-incial of the Domini- cans, and during his four years of office gained the respect and confidence of his brethren. He is the author of the following works: "Rudiments of Eng- lish Grammar" (London, 1790), considered authorita- tive in its day, and highly commended by Walker, the lexicographer; "Principles of the Christian Re- ligion and Catholic Faith Investigated (London, 1790); "Collection of Poems Occasionally Written" (Cheltenham, 1822); "The Di\'inity of Jesus Christ and Beauties of His Gospels" (London, 1822); some unpublished MSS. are in the archives of the English pro\'ince.

GiLLow, Bibl. Diet, of Eng. Cath., s. v.; Palmer, The Life of Cardinal Howard (London, 1867).

John T. McNicholas.

Britton (or Bretton), John, Venerable, layman and martjT, of an ancient family of Bretton near Barnsley in Yorkshire. An ardent Catholic, he was often separated from his wife and family, owing to constant persecution which he suffered for his faith. When advanced in years, he was maliciously and falsely accused of traitorous speeches against the queen and condemned to death. Refusing to re- nounce his faith he was executed at York, as in ca.ses of high treason, 1 April, 1.598. He was probably the father of Dr. Matthew Britton, prefect and professor at Douai in 1.599.

Ch.\lloner, Memoirs; Knox, Douai/ Diaries; Peacock, List of Roman Catholics of Yorkshire (London, 1872); Folkv, Records; Roman Diarij (London, 1880); Gillow, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath. (London, 1885).

Bede Camm.

Brixen, Diocese of, a Prince-Bishopric of Austria, suffragan of Salzburg, embracing the greater part of Northern Tyrol (with the exception of the part east of the Zillerbach, which belongs to Salzburg), as well as all Vorarlberg, and containing c. 6,705 square miles, and o\'er 440,000 inhabitants.

I. History. — The Diocese of Brixen is the con- tinuation of that of Siiben (.Sabiona), which, accord- ing to legend, was founded by St. Cassian. As early as the third century Christianity penetrated Sabiona, at that time a Roman custom station of considerable commercial importance. The first Bishop of Siiben vouched for by historj- is Ingenuin, mentioned about 580, who appears as suffragan of the Patriarch of Aquileia. The trit)es who pushed into the territory of the present Diocese of Brixen, during the great migratory movements, especially the Bajuvari and Langobardi, accepted Christianity at an early date; only the Slavs of the Puster valley (Pustertal) persisted in paganism until the eighth century. In the second half of the tenth century Bishop Rihpert (appointed 967) or Bishop Albuin I (967-1005) had the seat of the diocese, which since 798 has been under the Metropolitan of Salzburg, transferred to Brixen. Bishop Hartwig (1020-39) raised Brixen to the rank of a city, and surrounded it with fortifications. The diocese received many grants from the German emperors: thus from Conrad II in 1027 the Nori- t;il, from Henry IV in 1091 the Pustertal. In 1179 Frederick I conferred on the bishop the title and dignity of a prince of the German Empire. This