Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 4.djvu/426

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every church" — Acts, xiv, 22) and in Ephesus ("wherein the Holy Ghost hath placed you bishops" — Acts, XX, 7, 28). We have these statements on the authority of the author of the Acts, now admitted, even by Harnack, to be St. Luke, the companion of the .\postle. St. Paul had spent six or eight times as long at Corinth as he had at Philippi, yet we find him writing to the latter place : " Paul and Timothy . . . to all the saints in Christ Jesus, who are at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons" (Phil., i, 1 — cf. I Thess., V, 12). The principal office of the bishops and deacons was, according to the Didache, to consecrate the Blessed Eucharist. It is only by accident, as it were, on account of abuses, that St. Paul speaks, in the First Epistle, of the form of consecration used at Corinth, and which is substantially the same as that given in the Gospels. Had the abuses not arisen, it seems clear that he would not have referred to the Eucharist. He says nothing of it in the Second Epis- tle. In that case there would not be wanting those who would have loudly asserted that the Corinthians "knew nothing of it", and, by implication, that the Apostle's mind had not yet developed to that extent. But as he speaks so clearly we may take it as certain, too, that the ministers of the Eucharist were the same as in other places. There is no evidence that it was ever consecrated without a bishop or priest. These, with the deacons, were the regular ministers in each place, under the immediate jurisdiction of the Apos- tles of Jesus Christ. From all this we may conclude that the Church in .\chaia was as regularly organized as the earlier Churches of Galatia, Ephesus, and the neighbouring Province of Macedonia, or as in the Church of Crete (Tit., i, 5). There were "bishops" (which word certainly meant priests and perhaps also our modern bishops) and deacons. Later on, Tim- othy, and Titus, and others were appointed over these " bishops", priests, and deacons, and were monarchical bishops in the modern sense of the word. Other such bishops succeeded the Apostles. (See Bishop.)

The usual Introductions, such as CoRNELT.J.icqniER, Salmon, Belser. Zahn; Bern.\rd, Second Corinthians in Expositor's Greek Testament (London, 1903); Findlat, First Epistle to the Corinthians in Exp. Gr. Test. (London, 1900); Rickaby, Ro- mans, Corinthians, Gatatians (London. 1898); Ken'nedy, .Sec- ond and Third Corinthians (London, 1900); .\lford, The Greek Test. (London, 1855), II; Robertson in Hastings, Diet, of the Bible; Lives of St. Paul by Farh^r. Conybeare and How- son, Lewin, Fouard; McEvilly, An Exposition of the Epistles of St. Paid (3rd ed., Dublin. 1875); Cornely. Commentarius (Paris, 1890). See also the commentaries of Estids. Bisping, Maier, Loch, Reischl. Drach, Steenkiste. The critical commentary of Schmiedel, Die Briefe an die Korinther in Hand Kommentar (Leipzig. 1893); Lightfoot, Biblical Essays, Notes on Epistles of SI. Paul (notes on seven chapters of First Cor. — London. 1895); Robertson, Corinthians m The Inter' TUXtiorud Critical Commentary (Cambridge, 1908).

C. Aherne.

Coriolis, Gaspard-Gdstave de, French mathema- tician, b. at Paris, in 1792; d. in the same city, 1843. He entered the Ecole Polytechnique in 1808, and later continued his studies at the Ecole des Fonts et Chaus- s^es. Though determined to become an engineer, he did not enter upon the practice of his profession, but became instead, in the year 1816. a tutor in mathe- matical analysis and mechanics at the Ecole Poly- technique. In 18.38 he succeeded Dulong as director of studies in the same school. He became a member of the Academic des Sciences in 1836. Coriolis was a man of much ability, but his delicate health pre- vsnted him from doing justice to his powers. He was a successful educator and together with Gen. Ponce- let was one of the pioneers of reform in the methods of teaching mechanics. While engaged in teaching, he at the same time carrie<l on his researches in theoretical and applied mechanics. The theorem enunciated by him nganling relative motions has found numeriiiis apjilications. particularly in the of motions taking place on the surface of the earth: as, for example, the deviation towards the east of

falling bodies, the apparent rotation of the plane of vibration of a pendulum, etc. Coriohs was the author of "Calcul de I'efl'et des machines" (1829), wliich was reprinted in 1844 with the title "Traite de la mecani- que des corps solides", and of "Theorie mathe- matique du jeu de billard" (1835). He also pub- lished a number of articles, notably in the " Diction- naire de 1 'Industrie ".

Marie, Hist, des sciences math, ei phys. (Paris, 1S8S), XII, 190.

Henry M. Brock.

Cork (Corcagia), Diocese of (Corcagiensis), in Ireland, suffragan of C'ashel. St. Finbarr was the founder and first bishop of this see. He was born about the middle of the sixth century at Rathculleen, six miles north of Bandon, and educated in Leinster. Having spent some time on "a green island" in Gougane Barra. he founded a monastery and a school at Lough Eire, the name given to the marshy expan- sion of the river Lee, on which the city is built, and from which both city and diocese derive the name Cork (corcagh, "marsh"). This monastery seems to have been erected on the elevated plateau to the south of the city, now known as the Rock, close by the palace of the Protestant bishop. Soon many students flocked thither from various parts. They and those interested in them rapidly took possession of the large island in the niar-sh beneath, built on it, and so gave birth to a city which now numbers over 70,000 inhabitants, and is the residence of the saint's episcopal successor.

The limits of the territory over which St. Finbarr ruled cannot be accurately defined to-day. A fact, however, not generally recognized by historians en- ables us to conclude that the boundaries w-ere suffi- ciently clear even in the most ancient times. Finbarr's father was chief metal-worker to Tigherneach. chief of Ui Eachach Mumhan. As the saint advanced in years he was venerated as a patron by the entire sept, and so obtained spiritual jurisdiction over their wide territories. The eastern antl western limits were respectively Cork and Mizzen Head, and there are arguments to show that the northern and southern were the Avonmore (Blackwater) and the ocean. In the Synod of Rathbreasail (11 10) these are also named as the limits of the Diocese of Cork, whence it would appear that the sept lands and the diocese were coter- minous, as was the case with St. Faughnan's Diocese of Ross, which coincides with the lands of the O'Dris- coUs; and that of St. Munchin, Limerick, with those of Ui Fighente, in later times O'Donovans. At some period after the twelfth century part of the territory between the Lee and Blackwater to the north was detached in favour of the neighbouring Diocese of Cloyne; the land of the O'Driscolls had been already erected into the Diocese of Ross; and to-day Cork is approximately bounded on the north by the city and suburbs, and the River Lee as far as Gougane Barra, on the east by Cork Harbour, on the south by the Diocese of Ross and the ocean, and on the west by Bantry Bay.

The church and monastery founded by St. Finbarr were naturally the centre of the diocese till the six- teenth century. For many years the successor to the first abbot was also bishoj) of the diocese. Other churches and monasteries, however, grew up in the city itself and in the territories over which he ruled. In a document dated 1 1 Of), in which Innocent III con- firms to the Bishop of Cork his various privileges, mention is made of eight churches in the city, the first being Sancta Maria in Monte, doubtless St. Mary's, Shandon. close by w'hich stands the Catholic cathedral of to-day. Two centuries later (1300"), in the will of John de Wychedon, w-e find the names of no fewer than fifteen churches, all in the city, four of thcni bearing names such a.s "Lepers of Dilby", "Lepers of Glenamore"; but a hundred years aftef