Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 4.djvu/640

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gery. The faculty of Law consists of the schools of civil law, of public law, and of notarial law. There are also in Havana a normal school, a school of painting and sculpture, and a school of arts and trades.

DE L\ Sagra, Historia fisica, potitica, y natural de la Jsla de C-uba (13 vols., Madrid. 1849-61); von Sivers, Cuba, die Perle der Antitlen (Leipzig, 1861); Cabrera, Cuba and the Ctihans, tr. by GniTERAS (Philadelphia, 1896); Rowan and Ramsay, The Island of Cuba (New York, 1896); Clark, Commercial Cuba (New York, 1898); Porter, Industrial Cuba (New York, 1898); Canini, Four Centuries of Spanish Rule in Cuba (Chicago, 1898); NoA, The Pearl of the Antilles (New York, 1898); Currier. Cuba, What shall we do with itt (Baltimore, 1898); Informe sobre el Censo de Cuba. 1899 (Washington, 1900); Senate Documents (1903-04), VII, 58th Congress. 2nd Session; Robinson, Cuba and the Intervention (New York, 1905). RonRicuEZ, The Church and Church Property in Cuba in Am. Calk. Quar. Ret\ (Philadelphia, 1900), 366 sqq.; Clinch. Spain and Cuba, ibid. (1897), 809 sqq.

Ventura Fuentes. Cubiculum. See Catacombs. CucuUa. See Cowl.

Cuenca (Conc.\ in Indus) Diocese of, a suffragan of Quito, in the Republic of Ecuador, South America, created 1.'? June, 1779. The episcopal city, which has 30,000 inhabitants, is situated 7700 feet above the sea, in a broad plain of the province of Azuay, about seventy-five miles south-east of Guayaquil. Peruvian antiquities abound in the vicinity. Cuenca is the second see in importance of the Ecuadorian provinces. It includes the civil divisions of Azuay, of which Cu- enca is the capital, and Canar, the capital of which is Azogues. The first missions were centred in the east^ em portion of the republic owing to the slow progress of civilization elsewhere. The ifesuits were first in the field followed by the Franciscans, Fathers of Mercy, Dominicans, and some secular priests. In 1599 the Jesuit Rafael Ferrer penetrated to Cofanes, and his associates in the Society of Jesus, Lucas de la Cueva and Caspar Cujia, later organized the work thatwent on with so much success for religion and civilization during 1.30 years, until the Society was expelled in 1767. A mission, imder the Salesian Fathers, is now in operation in the Vicariate of Gualaquiza, east of Cuenca. To this diocese belonged the Franciscan Vicente Solano (1790-1865), famous as a Catholic controversialist.

The first bishop of the see was Jos^ Carrion y Marfil, consecrated in 1786, and he has had nine successors, during whose administrations the faith of the people has been loyally preserved in spite of all difficulties. The organization of the diocese is mainly due to that excellent administrator, Bishop Toral (1861-1883), who also assisted at the Vatican Coimcil. Devotion to the Blessed Sacrament has been so notable a char- acteristic of the diocese that Cuenca has won the title of the "Eucharistic City". A special Eucharistic feast known as "The Cuenca Septenary" is kept with great fervour. Owing to the domination of radicalism in national politics the Church is not now able to make very special progress in the republic, and the secular spoliation of ecclesiastical property has given rise to scandalous usurpations of her rights. The effects of continual civil strife have been as dis- astrous to religious progress as they have been debili- tating and destructive to commercial and industrial prosperity. The appointment by the Holy See, after a vacancy of seven years, on 11 January, 1907, of Bishoj) Manuel Maria Polit has liad beneficial results.

SxATLSrics. — Parishes, (50; priests, secular 130, seminarians 18, regular 60; lay brothers 25; Congre- gations of women, contemplative 70, active 140, novices .TO; 1 college, 120 students; 2 liter.ary acade- mies, 40 pupils; 2 schools. Christian Brothers, 1300 pupils; 55 parish schools (boys), 1500 pupils; 48 (girls), 785 pupils; 2 hospitals; 1 home for aged, 20 inmates, 1 orphan a.sylum, 15 inmates; 1 House of Good Shepherd. 14 penitents; 1 asylum, 50 children. Catholic population 200.000.

Battandier, Ann. ponl. cath. (1906); Herder, Konversa- tions-Lei., s. v.; Werner, Orbis terrarum Calh. (Freiburg im Br., 1890).

ToiLis Alvarado.

Cuenca (Conca), Diocese of, in Spain, suffragan of Toledo. The episcopal city (10,756) is also the capital of the civil province of the same name, and the diocese includes, in addition, a portion of the prov- inces of Guadalajara and Albacete. Cuenca was made a diocese in 1183 by Lucius III, shortly after its re- conquest from the Moors by Alfonso IX (1177). The first bishop was Juan Yanez. Among its famous prelates were (1577) the great jurisconsult Diego de Covarruvias y Leyva (q. v.), Isidore de Car vajaly Lan- caster (1760), and (1858) Cardinal Miguel Payd, Arch- bishop of Santiago, one of the most distinguished prelates of the Vatican Council. The cathedral of Cuenca is a magnificent Gothic edifice begim at the end of the twelfth and finished in the thirteenth cen- tury. One of its chapels bears the name and was built at the expense of the Albornoz family to which belonged the great cardinal Gil de Albornoz (q. v.). The church of Santa Maria de Gracia, once a syna- gogue, is remarkable for its fine sculptures.

D.v-viLA, Trniro eccl. de las Iglesias de Espafia (Madrid. 1645). I, 428-502; La Fuente, Hist. Bed. de Espana, V, 526-27; VI, 286.

Edtjabdo de Hinojosa.

Cuernavaca, Diocese of (Cuern.\v.\censis), erected '-'3 June, 1891, comprises all the State of More- los in the Republic of Mexico, and is boimded on the north and the west by the Archdiocese of Mexico, on the east by the Archdiocese of Puebla, and on the south by the Bishopric of Chilapa. It has an area of 7184 square kilometers, with a population of 161,697. The Gospel was first preached in the territorj' of the present diocese by the Franciscans who founded the convent of Cuernavaca in 1.526. In 1529 the Domini- cans established themselves at Oaxtepec, and the Augustinians in 1534 at Ocuituco. Motolinia, the Franciscan historian, asserts that in 1536 all the in- habitants of this region had been converted to the Faith. In the eighteenth century the churches founded by the religious of these three orders were secularized, that of Cuautla alone remaining to the Dominicans, but this also finally passed into the hands of the secular clergy. The diocese is now enjoying a period of peace. Agriculture, the manufacture of alcohol, and the sugar industry, form the principal means of livelihood for the inhabitants. The non- Catholics, who are about 500 in number, form small communities and are permitted absolute freedom.

The first bishop, Fortino Hipolito Vera was conse- crated 29 July, 1894. He died 23 September, 1898, and was succeeded by Francisco Plancarte y Navar- rete, consecrated first Bishop of Campeche, 16 Sep- tember, 1896, and translated to the vacant see of Cuernavaca, 28 November, 1898. He took possession 16 February, 1899.

The diocese is divided into 34 parishes and has 42 secular and 6 regular priests, who have charge of the seminarj'. Eight Marist Brothers have charge of the schools for boys, and 20 sisters (Hijas de Maria Innia- culada tie Guadalupe) those for the girls. There are 12 parochial schools with an attendance of more than one thousand, l)oys and girls. Besides thesie there are in the episcopal city a seminary with about 36 board- ers, a college for boys attendccl by 262 students, both Iwarders and day scholars, an orphan a.sylum with 40 regular inmates and 274 girls who attend there, and a Catholic hcispital supported bv tlie Society of St. Vincent de PmuI. The " Boletin Oficial v Kevista Eeles- iiistica del (l|iis|.:idc> de Cuernavaca "," published fort- nightly, is the ciiily Catlicilic piililii-alioM in the diocese. The ejiisrop.'d ri'sidcnce is in the city of Cuernavaca, whose foundation antedates the thirteenth century.