it a local attraction. He continued its pastor till his death; which followed a long illness that in- capacitated liim for active service. Besides his articles in "Brownson's Review" he was also a con- tributor to "Appleton's Encyclopedia" and pub- lished in New York: "ItaUan Legends" (1859); "Songs for Catholic Schools" (1862); "Spiritual Progress" (1865); "The Silver Stole".
H. F. Brownson, Orestes A. Brownson: Middle Life (Detroit, 1899); Idem, Later Life (Ibid., 1900); Shea, The Catholic Churches of New York City (New York, 1878); contemporary eies The Freeman's Journal, The American Celt. The Metro- politan Record (New York), The Catholic Herald (Philadelphia).
Thomas F. Meehan.
Cuncolim, Martyrs of.— On Monday, 25 July, 1583 (N. S.), the village of Cuncolim in the district of Salcpte, territory of Goa, India, was the scene of the martyrdom of five religious of the Society of Jesus: Fathers Rudolph Acquaviva, Alphonsus Pacheco, Peter Berno, and Anthony Francis, also Francis Aranha, lay brother. Rudolph Acquaviva was born 2 October, 1550, at Atri m the Kingdom of Naples. He was the fifth child of the Duke of Atri, and nephew of Claudius Acquaviva, the fifth General of the Society of Jesus, whUe on his mother's side he was a cousin of St. Aloysius Gonzaga. Admitted into the Society 2 April, 1568, he landed in Goa 13 September, 1578. Shortly after his arrival he was selected for a very important mission to the court of the Great Mogul Akbar, who had sent an embassy to Goa with a request that two learned missionaries might be sent to Fatehpir-Sikri, his favourite residence near Agra. After spending three years at the Mogul court, he returned to Goa, much to the regret of the whole Court and especially of the emperor. On his return to Goa, he was appointed superior of the Salcete mission, which post he held until his martyrdom. Alphonsus Pacheco was bom about 1551, of a noble family of New Castile, and entered the Society on 8 September, 1567. In September, 1574, he arrived in Goa, where he so distinguished himself by his rare prudence and virtue that in 1578 he was sent to Eu- rope on important business. Returning to India in 1581, he w;is made rector of Rachol. He accompanied two punitive expeditions of the Portuguese to the village of Cuncolim, and was instrumental in destroy- ing the pagodas there. Peter Berno was bom of humble parents in 1550 at Ascona, a Swiss village at the foot of the Alps. After being ordained priest in Rome, he entered the Society of Jesus in 1577, arrived in Goa in 1579, and was soon appointed to Salcete. He accompanied the expeditions to Cuncolim, and assisted in destroying the pagan temples, destroyed an ant-hill which was deemed very sacred, and killed a cow which was also an object of pagan worsliip. He used to say constantly that no fruit would be gath- ered from Cuncolim and the hamlets around it till they were bathed in blood shed for the Faith. His supe- riors declared that he had converted more pagans than all the other fathers put together.
Anthony Francis, born in 1553, was a poor student of Coimbra in Portugal. He joined the Society in 1571, accompanied Father Pacheco to India in 1581, and was shortly afterwards ordained priest in Goa. It is said that whenever he said Mass, he prayed, at the Elevation, for the grace of martyrdom; and that on the day before his death, when he was saying Mass at the church of Orlim, a miracle prefigured the grant- ing of this pr.'iyer.
Brother Francis Aranha was born of a wealthy and noble family of Braga in Portugal, about 1551, and went to India with his uncle, the first Archbishop of Goa, Dom Caspar. There he joined the Society of Jesus, 1 November, 1571. Being a skilled draughts- man and architect, he built several fine chapels in Goa.
These five religious met in the church of Orlim on
the 15th of July, 1583, and thence proceeded to Ctm- colim, accompanied by some Christians, with the ob- ject of erecting a cross and selecting ground for build- ing a church. Seeing an opportunity of doing away with these enemies of their pagodas, the pagan vil- lagers, after holding a council, advanced in large num- bers, armed with swords, lances, and other weapons, towards the spot where the Christians were. Gon^alo Rodrigues, one of the party, levelled his gun, but Father Pacheco stopped him, saying: "Come, come, Senhor Gon(;alo, we are not here to fight." Then, speaking to the crowd, he said in Konkani, their native language, " Do not be afraid." The pagans then fell upon them ; Father Rudolph received five cuts from a scimitar and a spear and died praying God to forgive them, and pronoimcing the Holy Name. Father Berno was next horribly mutilated, and Father Pa- checo, wounded with a spear, fell on his knees extend- ing his arms in the form of a cross, and praying God to forgive his murderers and send other missionaries to them. Father Anthony Francis was pierced with arrows, and his head was split open with a sword. Brother Aranlia, wounded at the outset by a scimitar and a lance, fell down a deep declivity into the thick crop of a rice-field, where he lay until he was discov- ered. He was then carried to the idol, to which he was bidden to bow his head. Upon his refusal to do this, he was tied to a tree and, like St. Sebastian, was shot to death with arrows. The spot where this tree stood is marked with an octagonal monument surmounted by a cross, which was repaired by the Patriarch of Goa in 1885.
The bodies of the five martyrs were thrown into a well, the water of which was afterwards sought by people from all parts of Goa for its miraculous healing prop- erties. The bodies themselves, when foimd, after two and a half days, showed no signs of decomposi- tion. They were solemnly buried in the church of Our Lady of the Snows at Racliol, and remained there until 1.597, when they were removed to the college of St. Paul in Goa, and in 1862 to the cathedral of Old Goa. Some of these relics have been sent to Europe at various times. All the bones of the entire right arm of Blessed Rudolph were taken to Rome in 1600, and his left arm was sent from Goa as a present to the Jesuit college at Naples. In accordance with the re- quest of the Pacheco family, an arm and leg of Blessed Alphonsus were sent to Europe in 1609. The process of canonization began in 1600, but it was only in 1741 that Benedict XIV declared the martyrdom proved. On the 16th of April, 1893, the solemn beatification of the five martyrs was celebrated at St. Peter's in Rome. It was celebrated in Goa in 1894, and the feast has ever since then been kept w-ith great solem- nity at Cuncolim, even by the descendants of the mur- derers. The Calendar of the Archdiocese of Goa has fixed 26 July as their feast-day.
Along with the five religious were also killed Gon- 9alo Rodrigues, a Portuguese, and fourteen native Christians. Of the latter, one was Dominic, a boy of Cuncolim, who was a student at Rachol, and had ac- companied the fathers on their expeditions to Cun- colim and pointed out to them the pagan temples. His own heathen vuicle dispatched him. .\lphonsus, an altar-boy of Father Pacheco, had followed him closely, carrying his breviary, which he would not part with. The pagans then^fore cut off his hands and cut through his knee-joints to prevent his escape. In this condition he lived till the next day, when he was found and killed. This boy, a native of either Margao or Verna, was buried in the church of the Holy Ghost at Margao. Francis Rodrigues, who was also murdered, used to say, when he was reproached by the fathers for slight faults, that he hoped to alone for them by slioilding his blood as a niartjT. Paul da Costa, another of tliosc who died at the hands of the pagans, was an inhabitant of Rachol, and had been