II; his quotations, generally exact, are of service for the textual criticism of the authors mentioned; of great interest, too, are the few reports which he got from the travellers of his time; as, for instance, from the mcnk Fidelis who (762?) journcyetl along the canal then still existing, between the Nile and the Red Sea; and from clerics who had lived in Iceland six months. The manuscript was known to Welser, Isaac Vossius, Salmasius, Hardouin, and Schopflin; it first appeared in print under the title: "Dicuili Liber de mensura orbis terrse ex duobus codd. mss. biblio- thecse iniperialis nunc primura in lucem editus a t'ar. Athan. Walckeiiaer" (Paris, 1807). The latest and best edition is that of G. Parthey (Berlin, 1S70).
An excellent commentary is that by Lf.th- ■ ■. i in In- /.'*- cherches gvographiques et critiques sur te livrr h tna
ttrrw compose . . . par Dicuil (Paris, IS! i' . vv , i it,
Beitrdffe zur Kritik d^r Choroffraphie di's Au/!' l\ ■ ' '-■.
I; DiiMMLER, Die handschrifUiche I ■'■>-
ni^chen Dictitunge-tl aus der Zeit der K ' ' '.ir
fur alters deulsche Geschichtskunde t]hr 1 - i l\ '-'>-
258; Ahcher in Diet. Nal. Biog.; Tii\t m ,.',,■ ',,»;.;./,:,• deA Augusitts in Sitzungsherichte -der philnsnplusrh-histori^rhen Classe der K. B. Akademie der Wissensehaften, 1891 (Munich, 1S92), 406-409.
Didache (Doctrine op the Twelve Apostle.s), a short treatise which was ficcounted by some of the Fathers as next to Holy Scripture. It was rediscov- ered in 1883 by Brj'ennios, Cireek Orthodox metropoli- tan of Nieoniedia, in the codex from which, in 1875, he had published the full text of the Epistles of St. Cle- ment. The title in the MS. is AiSaxi; Kvplov Si& tuiv BJi&eKa aToaTb\wv (Bvioiv, but before this it gives the heading AiSaxr; tCiv SiiSexa a,TtocTb\oiv. The old Latin translation of cc. i-v, found by Dr. J. Schlecht in 1900, has the longer title, omitting "twelve", and has a rubric De dodrinA Apostolorum. For convenience the contents may be tlivided into three parts; the first is the "Two Ways", the Way of Life and the Way of Death; tht^ second part is a ritviile dealing with bap- ti.sm, fasting, and Holy Communion; the third .speaks of the ministrj'. Doctrinal teaching is presupposed, and lione is imparted.
The Didache is mentioned by Eusebius after the books of Scripture (H. E., Ill, xxv, 4): "Let there be placed among the spuria the writing of the Acts of Paul, the so-called Shepherd ami the Apocalypse of Peter, and besides the.se the Epistle known as that of Harnabas, and what are called the Teachings of the Apostles, and also . . . the Apocalypse of John, if this be thought fit ... " St. Athana-sius and Rufi- nus add the "Teaching" to the sapiential and other deutero-canonical books. (Rufinus gives the curious alternative title "Judicium Petri".) It has a similar place in the lists of Nieephorus, Pseudo-Anastiusius, and P.seudo-Athana.sius (Synopsis). The Pseudo- Cyprianic "Ad versus Aleatores quotes it by name. Unacknowledged citations are very common, if less certain. The "Two Ways" appears in Barnaba.s, cc. xviii-xx, sometimes word for word, sometimes added to, dislocated, or abridged, and Bam., iv, 9 is from Didache, xvi, 2-3, or vice versa. Hermas, Irena'iis, Clement of .\lexandria, and Origen seem to use the work, and so in the West do Optatus and the "Oesta apud Zenophilum ". The Didascalia .Apostolorum (q. v.) are founded upon the Didache. The Apostolic church ordinance Ikls used a part, the Apostolic ("onstitu- tions have embodied the Didascalia. There are echoes in Justin, Tatian, Theophilus, Cyprian, and Lactantius.
Contents. — First Part. — The Way of Life is the love of God and of our neighbour. The latter only is spoken of at length. We first find the Golden Rule in the negative fonn (cf. the "Western" text of Acts, XV, 19 and 29). llien short extracts from the Sennon on the Mount, together with a curious pas.sago on giv- ing and receiving, which is cited with variations by Hermas (Mand., ii, 4-6). The Latin omits ch. i, 3-G
and ch. ii, 1, and these sections have no parallel in Barnabas; they may therefore be a later addition, and Hermas and the present text of the Didache may have used a common source, or Hernias may be the original. The second chapter contains the Commandments against murder, adulferj', theft, coveting, and false witness — in this order — and additional recommenda- tions depending on these. In ch. iii we are told how one vice leads to another: anger to murder, concupi- scence to adultery, and so forth. This section shows some close likenesses to the Babylonian Talmud. The whole chapter is passed over in Barnabas. A number of precepts are added in ch. iv, which ends: "This is the Way of Life." The Way of Death is a mere list of vices to be avoided (v). Ch. vi exhorts to the keeping in the Way of this Teaching; " If thou canst bear the whole yoke of the Lord, thou wilt be perfect; but if thou canst not, do what thou canst. But as for food, bear what thou caiLst; but straitly avoid things offered to idols; for it is a service of dead gods." Many take this to be a recommendation to abstain from flesh, as some explain Rom., xiv, 2. But the "let him eat herbs" of St. Paul is a hyperbolical expression like I Cor., viii, 13: "I will never eat flesh, lest I should scandalize my brother", and gives no support to the notion of vegetarianism in the Early Church. The Diilache is referring to Jewi.sh meats. The Latin ver- sion sul)stitiites for ch. vi a similar close, omitting all reference to meats and to idolothyta, and concluding with per (I. n. ./. C. . . . in scecula socculorum, amen. This is the end of the translation. We see that the translator liveil at a day when idolatry had disap- peared, and when the remainder of the Didache was out of date. He had no such re;uson for omitting ch. i, 3-6, so that this was presumably not in his copy.
Second Part. — This (vii-x) begins with an instruc- tion on baptism, which is to be conferred "in the N.inie of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost" in living water, if it <':in be had — if not, in cold or even hot water. The liajitizcd and, if po.ssible, the b.aptizer, and other persons must fast for one or two d.ays previously. If the water is insufficient for im- mersion, it may be poured thrice on the head. This is said by Bigg to show a late- date; but it seems a nat- ural concession for hot .and dry countries, when bap- tism was not as yet celef)rat('d exclusively at Easter and Pentecost and in churches, where a mlumbethra and a supply of water would not be wanting. Fasts are not to be on Monday and Thursday "with the hypocrites" (i. e. the Jews), but on Wednesday and Friday (viii). Nor must ('hri.stians pray with the hypocrites, but they shall say the Our Father thrice a day. The text of the prayer is not quite that of St. Matthew, and it is given with the doxology " for Thine is the power and the glory for ever", whereas all but a few MSS. of St. Matthew have this interpolation with "the kingdom and the power" etc.
Ch. i.x nms thus: "Concerning the Eucharist, thus shall you give thanks: 'We give Thee thanks, our Father, for the holy Vine of David Thy Child, which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus Thy Child; to Thee be the glory for ever'. And of the broken Bread: 'We give Tliee thanks, our Father, for the Life and knowledge which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus 'I'liy Cliilrl; to Thee l)e glory for ever. For as this broken Bn'ad was dispersed over the mountains, and being (•ofl<rteif liccaine one, so may Thy Church be gathered togitlur from llie ends of the earth into Thy kingdom, for Tliine is the glory and the power through Jes\is Clirist for ever.' And let none eat or drink of your lOucharist but those who have been baptized in the Name of Christ; for of this the Lord said: 'Give not the holy Thing to the dogs'." These are clearly prayers after the Consecration an<l before Communion. Ch. x gives a th;ink.sgiving after (.Com- munion, slightly longer, in which mention is made of the "spiritual food and drink and eternal Life through