s the "Katholische Vierteljahresschrift". Dieringer ook a prominent part in the founding of the Society if St. Charles Borromeo in 1845, of which he was at irst secretarj' and then president from 1846-1871. In 853, though retaining his professorship and residing •t Bonn, he was made canon of Cologne and ecclesias- ical councillor. In 1848 he represented the district of veuss in the parhament at Frankfort.
His name was among those proposed in 1856 for the 'acant See of Paderborn and in 1864 for that of Trier, )ut it was removed by the Prussian Government, rhough his earlier teaching, especially in his " Laien-
- atechismus ", bail been in accordance with the doc-
rine of papal infallibility, he yielded, at the time of he Vatican Council, to personal motives anil to the in- luence of his colleagues at Bonn and joined the opposi- ion. He had no thought, however, of leaving the "hurch, and, after negotiations of some length, he ■icldcd to the demand of Archbishop Melchers and nade his submission. In order to escape from the trained relations which existed among the divided acuity, Dieringer resigned his offices and dignities luring the spring of 1871 and took charge of the par- ih of Veringendorf in HohenzoUern. In 1874 he was imong those recommended for tlie archiepiscopal See if Freiburg, but he could not accede to the deniands if the Baden Government. .After 1874 he wa.s con- tantly in failing health.
Dieringer's principal publications are: "System der
- ottlichea Thaten des Christenthums, oder, Selbst-
)egriindimg des Christenthums, voUzogen durch eine gottlichen Thaten" (Mainz, 1841; 2nd ed., 857'), a work which clearly shows the influence of >tau(lenmaier, especially in its first edition; and the 'Lclirbuch der katholischen Dogmatik" (Mainz, S47; 5th ed., 1865), a book of great merit and for- ncrly nuich used. An excellent work on theology in )o[nilar form is his " Laienkatechismus iiber Religion, )ITenbanmg and Ivirche" (Mainz, 1865; 2nd ed., 1868). Another book also in popular style, "Der leil. Karl Borromiius und die Kirchenverbesserung ieiner Zeit " (Cologne, 1846), appeared as the first pub- ication of the Society of St. Charles Borromeo and lad a wide circulation. Besides these publications here remain to be mentioned the two liomiletic vorks: " Kanzelvortrage an gcbildcte Katholiken auf ille Sonn- und Fe.sttage des Kirclunjalirrs" (Mainz, 1844) and "Das Epistelbuch der katholischen Kirche, heologisch erkliirt" (Mainz, 1863); the polemical writings: "(3fTenes Sendschreiben iiber die kirch- ichen Ziistiinde der Gegenwart an Dr. J. B. von [lirscher" (Mainz, 1849; against Hirscher's publica- tion under the same title); "Dogmatische Eriirte- luigen mit einem Gvintherianer " (Mainz, 1S52); "Die riieologie der Vor- und Jetztzeit, ein Beitrag zur Verstandigung" (Bonn, 1868; 2nd ed., 1869; against Kleutgen's "Theologie der Vorzeit"), which appeared irst in the " Theologisches Literaturblatt" of Bonn (1868); and: " Kxpositio doctrina' Tertulliani de re- publica et de olliciis ac iuribus civium christianorum " (University Program; Bonn, 1850).
Kaule.n in Kirchmti'X., s. v.; Reuscii in Allgemcinc dmitxche Biograpfiie, a. v.; i^CHJLL in Fn-iburaer Kathol, Kirchmblatt fl8S9). Nr. Xi. p. 177 sqq.; Franz Kaufmans, Lmpol<l Kaiif- nann ((xiliignc. igftJ). l.Msqq., l.W-61. 170-77; Die Griindung ind ThntiqkrU tics Verrirwi vom hcil. Karl lioTrom&iui, Jubilee wmb,r (ColoKiie, 1S95). 53-55. with portrait.
Dies Irae, the name by which the seciuence in re-
- iuiem Ma.sses is commonly known. Tney are the
apening words of the first verse: Dies irw, dies ilia. riie rubrics of the Roman Mi.ssal prescribe the recita- tion of the sequence l)y the celebrant on the following accasions: (1) in the M;iss of All Souls' Day (In rom- memoratione Omnium Fiilelium Drfunitorum); (2) in Funeral Masses (In die obitus seu deimsilitmis dejunrti); ind (3) whensoever in requiem Masses, only one ora-
iio, or collect, is to be said, namely in the anniversary Mass, and when Mass is solemnly celebrated on the third, the seventh, or the thirtieth (month's mind) day after death or burial. Its recitation in other re(|uiem Ma.sses (In Missis quotiiliaiii.'i (Iclunctorum) is optional with the celebrant. It should be noted here that the decree of the Congregation of Sacred Rites (12 .■\ugust, 18,54) permitting the choir to omit such stanzas as do not contain a prayer is not included in the new edition of the "Decreta Authentica S. R. C." (Rome, 1898- 1900). From this fact may be inferred that the more ancient rule is now in force and that the whole se- quence must either be sung by the choir or bo "re- cited" in a high and clear voice with organ accompani- ment (cf. American Ecclesiiistic;il Review, August, 1907, p. 201).
As found in the Roman Missal, the Dies Ira; is a Latin poem of fifty-seven lines in accentual (non- quantitative), rhymed, trochaic metre. It comprises nineteen stanzas, of which the first seventeen follow the type of the first stanza : —
1. Dies ir£e, dies ilia,
Solvet steclum in favilla: Teste David cum Sibylla.
The remaining stanzas discard the scheme of triple rhymes in favour of rhymed couplets, while the last two lines use assonance instead of rhyme and are, moreover, catalectic: —
18. Lacrimosa dies ilia, Qua resurget ex favilld, Judicandus homo reus.
19. Iluic ergo parce Deus: Pie Jesu Domine,
Dona eis requiem. Amen.
Thus the last two stanzas are printed in the typical (1900) edition of the Missal, and in the Ratisbon edi- tion of the plain-chant setting. The Vatican edition (1907) of the plain-chant melody, however, apparently takes account of the fact that the hust six lines iliil not, in all probability, originally belong to the sequence, and divides them into three couplets.
This Missal text of the sefiueuce Ls found, with slight verbal variations, in a thirteenth-century manu- script in the Bibliotcca Nazionale at Naples (cf. Ila- berl, Magister Choralis, Ratisbon, 1900, pp. 237-23S). Father Eu.sebius Clop, O.F.M., in the "Revue du Chant Gr^'gorien" (November-December, 1907, p. 49) argues a date between 1253-1255 for the MS. — a Franciscan Missal whose calendar does not contain the name of St. Clare, w'ho was canonized in 1255, and whose name would have been inserted if tlie MS. were of later date. The same writer would assign (pp. 48, 49) a still earlier date (1250) to a copy of the Dies Ine inserted at the end of a so-called "Breviary of St. Clare" dating about 1228. Into his arguments it is not necessary to enter here; but it i.s important to notice that these dates are nnich anterior to the dates of the MSS. which, tmtil recently, hymnologists had cognizance of when they attem])teil to fix the |irobable authorship of the sequence. Thus Mone found none anterior to the fifteenth centnrj-: Chevalier mentions only a Mag<leburg Mi.ssal of 14S0 and a MS. Franciscan Missal of 1477; (he first edition of Julian's "Diction- ary of Hymnology" (1892) declared the "oldest form known to the present time" to be found in a Domini- can Mi.ssal "written at the end of the foiirteenth cen- tury and apparentlj' for ase at Pisa"; Warren, in his " Dies Ine" (London, 1902, p. 5), knows no earlier MS. Tlie second edition of Julian (1907) mentions the Naples MS. in its supplement (p. 1629), but not the " Breviary of St. Clare". Father Clop describes also a third contemporary MS. (p. 49), Italian, like the others: "Toutes trois enfin appartenant Ogalement i la liturgie des Freres Mineurs ". All this renders very