(Wuraburg, 1858); SACERLANn, Das Lehen des Dietrich von Niehrim (Oottingen, 1875); Idem, Anmcrkuntjen zu Dietrich von Nicheims Werke de scismate in Historisdics Jahrbuch (1886), 59-66; Idem, Der sogcn. liricfwechsel dcs Trierer Erzbisch^fs Hillin itnd Dietrich von Nicheims Chronik in Neues Arc)iiv (18S7), 599-601; Lenz, Drei Traklate aus dem Schriftencyclus des Constanser Concils (Marlnir!^. 1S761: Krvtse. Dietrich von Nwm, Konrad von Vechfii. h i ,n ',,,/, ', - I > ---
deti in Forschungen c<', ' .XT'. '- * . '-.'
sqq.. XXII (1882), 24S >.; i , II. , / , ,,-
dorich von Nicheim in Di r /\ i-"', m' i t smi ■, 1 . li J -iji^ ; 1 i \ n-. i u, Beitraf/c zu dem Leben und tUn >Scfirif/in Dirtricfm von Niem in Forschungen zur deutschenGcsch,, XXI (1881). G7 sqq.; Idem, Dietrich von Niem in Zeilschrift fiir allgemeinc Gesch. (1885). 401 sqq.. 516 sqq.; Fritz, Zur Quellencritik drr .^chnften Dietrichs von Xiem (Paderborn, 1886); Idem, Isl /'. ■' - '. , A', dcr Ver- fastter der drei Constamer Tractate in Zi ' I . (}csch,t
XLVI. 157 sqq.; Ehi-er. Dietrich von .\ • I ,hrn und
seint Schrijten (Leipzig. 1SS7); Finkk, , / . '- /i.t ilbcT
das Konstanzer Konzil in Romische 0"" / christl.
Altertiimskunde und fiir Kirchengesch. (1^- i' , i . Imfm. Zu Dietrich von Niem und Marsilius V"' I ' i il893),
244 sqq.; Idem, Forschungen und Quelttn i:-,- 'j.-V^ /ts' Kon- stanzer Konzih (Paderborn. 1889), 132 sqq.; S.^gmuller. Der Verfasscr des Traktates de vwdis unicndi vom Jahre lUlO in His- torisehcs Jahrbuch (1893) 562 sqq.; Idem. Dietrich von Xiem und der Liber pontificalis. ibid. (1894), 802 sqq.; Idem. Ubcr den ri. Traktat des Nemus unionis. ibid. (1904). 531 sqq.; Haller. Papsttum und Kirchenreform: vier Kapitel zur Gesch. des ausgehcmlen M. A. (Berlin. 1903), I, 186 sqq., 483 sqq.; SrHMlDLlN. Gesch. der deutschen Nationalkirche in Rom S. Maria deir Anima (Freiburg, 1906); Mulder. Dietrich von Nicheim zijn oppvating van het Concitie en zijn Kronik (Amsterdam. 1907); PoTTHAST, Bibliotheca historica mcdii <Evi (Berlin, 1906), II, 1051 sqq.
J. P. KiRSCH.
Digby, Geokge, second Earl of Bristol, b. at Mad- rid, Sp.iin, where his father, the first earl, was ambas- sador, lfil2; d. at CheLsca. England, 1677. As a boy of twelve he presented a petition at the bar of the House of Commons on behalf of his father who had been committed to the Tower by the Duke of Buck- ingham. He was educated at Magdalen College, Ox- ford, where he became M. A., 31 Aug., 1()36. Shortly afterwards he entered into a correspondence with his kinsman. Sir Kenelm Digby, in which he attacked the C:itliolic Church. In the struggle between king and P;irliainent he was at first on the side of the Parlia- ment. He was elected member for Dorset in 1640 and was shortly afterwards made a member of the com- mittee which undertook to impeach St raff ord. When the inipeaclunent w;is abandoned for process of at- tainder, however, he vigorously oppo.sed it and thus incurre<l unpopularity with his own party. In 1641 he took his seat in the House of Lords as Baron Digby and joined the king's party. His advice to the king upon the retreat of the five meml)crs to the city, that they should be seized by force, was rejected by Charles, Init, becoming known, added greatly to his unpopularity. Shortly aftenvards, being summoned before the House of Lords to answer for his conduct, he fled to Holland Returning during the Civil War, he fought at Edgehill and Lichfield, but resigned his command by reason of a quarrel with Prince Rupert. In Sept., 1(343, he was made secretary of state and privy councillor, in which oflSces he was not suc- cessful.
In 1645 Digby replaced Rupert as lieutenant-general of the king's forces north of the Trent, but was de- feated at Carlisle Sands and fled to the Isle of Man. He next took service under the King of France, and ho became a lieutenant-general in the French army in 1651. On 6 Jan., 16.'>3, he succeeded his father as Earl of Bristol and w.as made Knight of the Garter. Owing to an unsuccessful intrigue against Mazarin he was ordered to leave France, and he proceeded to the Netherlands, where he visited Charles II then in e.xile. In 1657 he was reappointed secretary of state but again lost office on his conversion to the Catholic Faith. On the Restoration he retunied to England, becoming a political opponent of Clarendon. This dis- pleased the king, and Digby spent two years in con- cealment, till clarendon's fall. Though a Catholic he spoke in favour of the Test Act, drawing a distinction
between a "Catholic of the Church of Rome" and a "Catholic of flie Court of Rome". He was High Steward of Oxford University 1643-46 and again 1660-1663. He published "The Lord George Dig- bie's Apology for Himself" (1642) and "Elvira, a Comedy" (1667). Many of his speeches and letters were also published.
Wood, Athenai Oxon., Bliss ed. (London, 1817), III, 1100 sqq.; Clarendon, History of the Rebellion, ed. Macray (Ox- ford, 1888); Dodd, CAurcftHwforj/ (Brussels. 1739). Ill; Wal- pole, Cataloque of Royal and Noble Authors (London, 1806); Gillow, Bibl. Did. Eng. Cath.^ s. v.; Kussell Barker in Diet. Nat. Biog., a. v.
Digby, Kenelm Henry, miscellaneous writer, b. in Ireland. ISOO; d. at Kensington, Middlesex, England, 22 March, 1S80. He came of an ancient English stock branching, in Elizabeth's reign, into Ireland, by the marriage of Sir Robert Digby, of ('oleshill, Co. War- wick, with Lettice FitzGerald, only daughter and heir of Gerald, Lord Oifaly, eldest son of the eleventh Earl of Kildare. The eldest son of this Robert and Lettice became the first Lord Digby. Their second son, Es- sex Digby, Bishop of Dromore, was father of Simon Digby, Bishop successively of Limerick and Elphin, whose son John Digby, of Landenstown, Co. Kildare, was father of William Digby, Dean of Clonfert. Ke- nelm Henry Digby was this latter's youngest son. Thus his early surroundings and associations were strongly Protestant. His father died in 1812, when his eldest brother, William, was already Archdeacon of Elphin. Unlike these, who had graduated in Dub- lin University, Kenelm Henry matriculated at the University of Cambridge, entering at Trinity College there. His B. A. degree he took in 1S19, but he never proceeded M. A. Amid the many venerable and sug- gestive monuments of Catliolic antic|uity which Cam- bridge shows, he gradually ga\e his mind more and more to those "Ages of Faith" which he had been taught to despise and afterwards to the scholastic system of theology. The result of his deep study of these lofty subjects was his conversion, in youth, to the Catliolic Faith. His fir.st book, "The Broadstone of Honour", he published .anonymou.sly in 1822, while still nominally a Protestant, and an enlarged edition, again anonymously, the year following. After his conversion he rewrote the work, dividing it into four volumes, which appeared, each with a separate sub- title, in 1826-7. Two other editions followed, and lastly an edition de luxe, in five volumes, published by Quaritch, in 1876-7. According to its various second- ary titles, this masterpiece treats of "the Origin, Spirit, and Institutions of Christian (liivalry", or "the True Sense and Practice of Chivalry". Arch- deacon Hare, in his "Guesses at Truth", says that in this work the author "identifies himself as few have ever done with the good and great and heroic and holy in former times, and ever rejoices in passing out of himself into them".
Digby's second literary performance, entitled "Mores Catholic!, or Ages of Faith", came out in 1831—10 in eleven volumes, in a later edition reduced to three. In this work he collected, mostly from the original sources, a vast mass of information concern- ing the religious, social, and artistic life of the medi- eval peoples of Europe. It is, indeed, a kind of ency- clopedia of the medieval life, from the viewpoint of an ardently Catholic soul. It has been well said that in it he collected like a truly pious pilgrim the fragrance of ancient times. Various other publications, some in prose, some in ver.se, dropped from his prolific pen from time to time down to 1876 ; but these, in compar- ison with his "Broadstone of Honour" and "Mores Catholici", are but minor performances. Tlie most important of them is a work entitled "Compitum, or the Meeting of Ways at the Catholic Church". The complete list of his published works may be seen in