Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 4.djvu/881

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DILLINGEN


795


DILLINGEN


church of Saint-Bdnigne became the cathedral of Dijon early in tlic nineteenth century. Cardinal IxTot, later Archbishop of Bordeaux, was Bishop of Dijon from 1S86 to 1890. Pope Pius X's request in 1904 for the resignation of Monscigneur Le Nordez, Bishop of Dijon since 1899, was one of the incidents which led to the rupture of relations between France and the Holy See.

Romanesque architecture was very popular in Bur- gimdy; its masterpiece is the Cathedral of Saint- Bcnigne of Dijon, consecrated by Paschal II in 110() and completed in 1288. The Gothic style, although less used, characterizes the churches of Notrc-Dame de Dijon (1252-1334), Notre-Dame dc Semur, and r.Abbaye Saint-Seine; it was also the stylo of the Sainte-Chapelle of Dijon, which is no longer in exist- ence. Under the dukes of Burgundy, at the close of the fourteenth and beginning of the fifteenth century, Burgundian art fiourislicil in a surprising degree. The Chartreuse of Clianipmol, on which Philip the Bold had Claus Sluter, the sculptor, at work from 1389 to 1406, and which was the acme of artistic excellence, was almost totally ilestroyed during the Revolution; however, two superb traces of it may still lie seen, namely the Puils iks prophitcs and the portal of the church. The Beaune hospital (1443) is a fine speci- men of the Gothic style, and thechurcliof iSaint-Michel in Dijon (1497) hassixlecntli- un<l srviMiteenth-crntury porches covered with fantastic bas-reliefs. The .Ab- beys of Citeaux, Fontenay, and Flavigny (where in the nineteenth century Pere Lacordaire installed a Dominican novitiate) were all within the territory of the present Diocese of Dijon. (See Cisterci.^ns and

CixEAl'X.)

The following saints are specially honoured: Saint Sequanus (Seine), b. at Magny, d. 580, founder of the monastery of R(5omais around which sprang up the little town of Saint-Seine; St. William (961-1031), a niilive of Novara, Abbot of Saint-Benigne at Dijon in 990, and reformer of the Benedictine Order in the eleventh century; St. Iloljert of Molesme, joint founder with Sts. Alberic and Stephen Harding of the monasterj' of Citeaux in 1098; St. Stejihen Harding, who died in 1134, third Alibot of Citeaux, under whose administration the monasteries of La Fert6, I'ontigriy, Clairvaux, and Mnrimond were established; St. Bernard ( 1090-1 153) ; St. Jane Frances de Chantal (l.")72 1641), b. .at Dijon, who, having heard St. Fr.ineis de Sales' Lenten discourses at Dijon in 1004, conceived a holy friend.ship for him; the Venerable Bc^nigiic Joly, canon of Saint-Etienne de Dijon (.seven- teenth centurv); and the Venerable Sister Marguerite of the Bles.se'd Sacrament (l(il9-48), surnamed the "little saint of Beaune", noted for the ap])aritions of the Infant Jesus with which she was favoured, in conseiiuence of which the jiious as.sociation known as the Family of the Holy Child Jcs\is was organized and later rai.sed by Pius IX to tlic dignity of ;ui archcon- fraternity. Among the famous persons of the diocese the Seneschal Philippe Pot (1428-94) is remembered for his exploits against the Turks in 1452 and his miraculoiis deliverance from his captors. The illus- trious Bossuet was a native of Dijon. Hubert Lan- Ruct, the Protestant publici.st (1518-81), was bom at Vitteaux.

Tlie chief places of pilgrim.age arc: Notrc-Damc de BeauiK', at Beaune (ante(lating 1120); Notre-Dame du Bon-Esjioir at, Dijon, dedicated in 1334; Notre- Dame du Chemin, near Serrigny (twelfth or thirteenth century); Notre-Dame de Citeaux (end of the elev- enth century), visited by many famous nilers of Europe and the Ea.st; Notre-Dame d'Etang at Velars (fifteenth century), visited by St. Jane Frances de Chantal, .St. Francis de Sales, Louis XIV, and Bo.ssuet; and Notre-Dame de l/-c. (tenth or eleventh century) visited by St. Benedict Labre. The room in which St. Bernard was boni was transformed into


a chapel at Fontaine-les-Dijon and visited by Louis XIV, Anne of Austria, Cond^, St. Jane Frances de Chantal, St. Francis de Sales, and M. Olier. St. Regina (Reine), who was martyred at Alise in the third century and whose body was transported to Flavigny in 864, is honoured by pilgrims; formerly it was customary to hold a theatrical procession in which the saint and her persecutors were represented.

In 1905, prior to the enforcement of the law against congregations, there were in the diocese Trappists, Jesuits, Dominicans, Sulpicians, and diocesan mission- aries, akso the following local congregations of women: Sisters of the Good Shejiherd, founded at Dijon in the seventeenth century by Vcneral)le B<nigne Joly ; Sisters of the Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament; Sisters of Providence, whose mother- house is at Vitteaux, and who conduct a great many schools; the Ursulines, with mother-house at Dijon; the Sisters of St. Martha, devoted alike to hospital work and teaching (founded in 1628) at Dijon. In 1899 the following institutions W'cre conducted by religious: 32 infant schools; 3 orphanages, with agri- cultural training; 9 orphan,ag3s for girls, 5 industrial schools; 1 institution for penitent women; 1 servants' guild; 18 hospit.als or hospices; 25 houses for nursing sisters; 3 houses of retreat; and 1 insane asylum. In 1905 (end of the Coneordatory period) the Diocese of Dijon had a population of 361,626; 38 parishes (cures), 447 suceuisal jiarislics (mission churches), and 13 curacies .■>i 1 1 ' . i liv the State.

Boii.Lur, li,„i,.' '^mo (Paris. 1657); Bon-

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ciillr dc .^ain' U-n. - ; T,iiroTTT-\ On'fjines du

diocese dc L<iJ, i sss ; \ ,s HnoFF, Intro-

duction to -1 I in., !^^, ), Nov., I,

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(Paris. I'JUTj; CiitvAULU. iitp. Ais(..- Y'l'/io-tiW.. 892 sqq.

Georges Goyau.

Dillingen, Univeh.sity op. in Swabia, a district of Bavaria. Its foimder was Cardinal Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, Prince-Bishop of Augsburg (1543- 1.573). He first establi.shed it under the title, "Col- lege of St. Jerome", and endowed it with the revenues of several monasteries which had been suppressed at the Reformation. His aim was to provide for the education of the clergy and the protection of the Catholic Faith in an in.stitution which, by the virtue and diligence of its students, should counterbalance the laxity of morals and insubordination so prevalent in other universities of Southern Gennany. With this end in view, he drew up special rules regarding the practice of religion, application to study, and conduct which each student bound himself by oath to ob.serve. In 1.551 Pope Julius III raised the college to the rank of a university and conferred on it the privileges en- joyed by other universities. Emperor Charles V rati- fied these privileges, and the formal inauguration took jilace 21 Alay, 1.554. Some of the professors, as Peter Endavianus, the first rector of Dillingen, came from Louvain; others from Spain, among them the well- known Peter de Soto, O. P., afterwards jirofessor at Oxford. In order to secure the existence of this insti- tution which had been founded with great effort and .sacrifice, and to strengthen its intellectual and moral infhience over the clergj'. Bishop Otto in 1 .563 gave the Jesuits, who.se ]>rovincial at that time w.as Peter Canis- ius, charge of the instruction in the imiversity, and authorized them to follow their own ndes in all that pertained to organization and .administration. As, however, the cathedral chapter of Augsburg would not admit the legality of this complete transfer, dis-