Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 7.djvu/519

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HONORIUS


459


HONORIUS


value, and his other literary productions, were col- lected and edited by Horoy in " Medii sevi bibliotheca patristica", series I (5 vols., Paris, 1879-83). While he was papal chamberlain (whence his general appella- tion of Cencius Camerarius) he compiled the " Liber censuum Romanae ecclesis", perhaps the most valu- able source for the history of papal economics during the Middle Ages. It comprises a list of the revenues of the Apostolic See, a record of donations received, privileges granted, and contracts made with cities and rulers. It was begun under Clement III and com- pleted in 1192 under Celestine III. Muratori in- serted it in his " Antiquitates Italicse medii xvi", V (Milan, 1739-43), 851-908. A new edition was prepared for the " Biljliotheque des 6coles frau^aises d'Athene et de Rome" by Fabre and Duchesne, fasc. i (Paris, 1889), fasc. ii and iii (1902), fasc. iv (1903). The original manuscript of the "Liber Censuum", which is still in existence (Vatieanus, 8486), concludes with a catalogue of the Roman pontiffs and the em- perors from St. Peter to Cele.stine III in 1101. It was edited separately by Weiland in " Archiv der Gesell- schaft fiir altere deutsche Geschichtskunde", XII (Hanover, 1874), 60-77. Honorius III wrote also a life of Celestine III (Horoy, loc. cit., I, 567-592) ; a life of Gregory VII (ibid., I, 568-.586); an "Ordo Romanus", which is a sort of ceremonial containing the rites of the Church for various occa.sions (ibid., I, 35-94, and Mabillon, in " Museum Italicum", II, 167- 220); and 34 sermons (Horoy, I, 593-976). His collection of decretals known as "Compilatio quinta" has been treated under Decretaus.

PRE.SSDTI, Rtgcsta Honorii III (2 vols., Rome, 18S8-95); Clausen. Papst Honorius III. (Bonn, 1895). The preceding work is aot suflRcieutly criticiil and has been corrected and sup- plemented by Knebel, Kaiser Friedrich II. unci Papst Honorius III. in ihren gegenseitigen Beziehungen von der Kaiserkrimung Friedricha bis zum Tode des Papsles, 1220-27 (Munst«r, 1905); PoKORNT, Die Wirksamfceit drr Legnten des Papsles Honorius III. in Frankreich und Deuisrhland (Krems, 1886); Masetti, / pontefici Onori III, Gregorio IX ed Innocemo IV a f route dell' imperatore Federieo II (Rome, 1884); Caillemer, Le pape Honorius III et le droit civil (Lyons, ISSl); Vernet, Etudes sur les sermons d'Honorius III, these (Lyons, 1.888), For his rela- tion with England see Gasqdet, Henri/ the Third and the Church (London, 1905), 27-107. See also the bibliography to Frederick II.

Michael Ott.

Honorius IV (Giacomo Savelli), Pope, b. at Rome about 1210; d. at Rome, 3 April, 1287. He belonged to the rich and influential family of the Savelli and was a grandnephew of Honorius III. Very little is known of his life before he ascended the papal throne. He studied at the University of Paris, during which time he held a prebend and a canonry at the cathedral of Chalons-sur-Marne. Later he obtained the benefice of rector at the church of Berton, in the Diocese of Norwich. In 1261 he was created Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin by Martin IV, who also appointed him papal prefect in Tuscany and captain of the papal army. By order of Clement IV he and three other cardinals invested Charles of Anjou as King of Sicily at Rome on 28 July, 1265. He was one of the six cardinals who elected Gregory X by compromise at Viterbo on 1 Sept., 1271. In 1274 he accompanied Gregory X to the Fourteenth General Council at Lyons, and in .luly, 1276, he was one of the three cardinals whom Adrian V sent to Viterljo with instructions to treat with King Rudolf I of Hapsburg concerning his imperial coronation at Rome and his future relations towards Charles of Anjou, King of Sicily. The death of Adrian V in the following month rendered fruitless the negotiations with Rudolf. Nothing further is known of the cardinal's doings until, nine years later, he was elected pope.

Martin IV died 28 March, 1285, at Perugia, and


Arms of Honorius IV


tliree days after his death fifteen out of the eighteen cardinals who then composed the Sacred College had a preliminary consultation at the episcopal residence at Perugia, and appointeil the following day, 2 April, 1285, for the election of the new jJope. The election took place without the conclave, which had been pre- scribed by Gregory X, but suspended by John XXI. At the first vote taken, Giacomo Savelli was unani- mously elected and took the name of Honorius IV. His election was one of the speediest in the history of the papacy. The reason for this gi-eat haste may be found in the Sicilian complications, which did not allow any interregnum, and especially in the fact that the cardinals wished to avoid the unjustifiable interfer- ence which occurred at the election of the preceding pope, when Charles of Anjou induced the inhabitants of Viterbo to imprison two cousins of the tleceased Nicholas III, in order to effect the election of a pope of French nationality. On 19 May, 1285, the new pontiff was ordained priest by Cardinal Malaliranca Orsini of Ostia, and the following day he was conse- crated bishop and crowned pope in the basilica of St. Peter at Rome. Honorius IV was already advanced in age and so severely affected with the gout that he could neither stand nor walk. When saying Mass he was obliged to sit on a stool and at the Elevation his hands had to be raised by a mechanical contrivance. Sicilian affairs required the immediate attention of the pope. By throwing off the rule of Charles of Anjou and taking Pedro III of Aragon as their king without the consent and approval of the Jiope, the Sicilians had practically denied his suzerainty over Sicily. The awful massacre of 31 March, 1282, known as the Sicilian Vespers, had precluded every possibil- ity of coming to an amicable understanding with Martin IV, a Frenchman who owed the tiara to Charles of Anjou. Pope Martin demanded unconditional submission to (_;harles of Anjou and the Apostolic See and, when this was refused, put Sicily and Pedro III under the ban, deprived Pedro of the Kingdom of Aragon, and gave it to Charles of Valois, the son of King Philip III of France. He, moreover, assisted Charles of Anjou in his attempts to recover Sicily by force of arms. The Sicilians not only repulsed the attacks of Charles of Anjou but also captured his son Charles of Salerno. On 6 January, 1285, Charles of Anjou died, leaving his captive son Charles of Salerno as his natural successor. Such were the conditions in Sicily when Honorius IV ascended the papal throne. The Sicilians cherished the hope that the new pontiff would take a different stand from that of his prede- cessor in the Sicilian question, but their hopes were only partly realized. He was indeed less impulsive and more peaceably inclined than Martin IV, but he did not renounce the claims of the Church and of the House of Anjou upon the Sicilian crown. Neither did he set aside the severe ecclesiastical punishments imposed upon Sicily or restore to Pedro III the King- dom of Aragon which Martin IV had transferred to Charles of Valois. On the other hand, he did not approve of the tyrannical government to which the Sicilians had been subject under Charles of Anjou. This is evident from his wise legislation as embodied in his constitution of 17 September, 1285 (" Constitutio super ordinatione regni Siciliie " in " Bullarium Roma- num", Turin, IV, 70-80). In this constitution he in- culcates that no government can prosper which is not founded on justice and peace, and he passes forty-five ordinances intended chiefly to protect the people of Sicily against their king and his officials. In case of any violation of these ordinances by the king or his officials, the people were free to appeal to the Aposto- lic See for redress. The king, moreover, was bound to observe the ordinances contained in this constitution imder pain of excommunication. Martin IV had allowed King Philip III of France to tax the clergy in France, and in a few dioceses of Germany, one-