Page:Collier's New Encyclopedia v. 10.djvu/154

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UNITED STATES

126

U. S. MILITARY ACADEMY

The deadlock between General Wood and Governor Lowden ended on January 12 by the nomination of Senator Warren G. Harding, of Ohio, for president, and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts for vice-president. At the Democratic National convention, which opened in San Francisco on June 28, James M. Cox was nominated for president on the 44th ballot, and on the following day Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York was nominated vice-president. On July 10, a Committee of 48 met in Chicago to form a third party, called the Farmer-Labor party. On July 10, Parley P. Christensen of Utah was nominated for president, and Max F. Hayes for vice-president.

The election campaign which followed the nominations was aggressively carried on on both sides. Harding made no campaign tour, but remained at his home in Marion, Ohio, where he addressed delegations from day to day. James M. Cox, the Democratic nominee, took an extremely active part in the campaign, making speeches in practically every State. The chief avowed issue on the part of the Democrats was the League of Nations. The Republicans, however, devoted most of their attacks to the administration of President Wilson. In the election on November 2, Harding received 16,091,804 popular votes, and Cox 9,014,667. Harding and Coolidge received 404 electoral votes, and Cox and Roosevelt 127. The Republican candidates received the largest popular and electoral majority ever cast. The Democrats carried only 11 Southern States, losing Tennessee. The Congress elections gave the Republicans 307 members in the House, and the Democrats 127. The Republicans gained 10 seats in the Senate, giving them a majority of 22. The Woman Suffrage Amendment having been adopted prior to the election, women participated for the first time throughout the country. Following the election, Senator Harding remained at his home at Marion, with the exception of several brief trips for recreation. He announced on December 16 that Vice-President Coolidge would occupy a seat in the cabinet. During the period between his election and his inauguration, Mr. Harding gave chief attention to the selection of a cabinet and to conferences with prominent Republican leaders. The cabinet was not announced until the inauguration. It was as follows: Secretary of State, Charles E. Hughes, of New York; Secretary of the Treasury, Andrew W. Mellon, of Pennsylvania; Secretary of War, John W. Weeks, of Massachusetts; Secretary of the Navy, Edwin C. Denby, of Michigan; Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, of Mexico; Postmaster General, Will H. Hays, of Ohio; Attorney-General, Harry M. Daugherty, of Ohio; Secretary of Agriculture, Henry C. Wallace, of Iowa; Secretary of Commerce, Herbert Hoover, of California; and Secretary of Labor, James J. Davis, of Pennsylvania. The inauguration took place on March 4, 1921, with a simple and dignified demonstration. On March 23 the President issued a call for a special session of Congress, to be held on April 11, 1921.

UNITED STATES CHRISTIAN COMMISSION, an organization founded by the National Young Men's Christian Association to perform religious and charitable work among the Union forces during the Civil War. It was first suggested by Vincent Colyer, who immediately after the battle of Bull Run, in July, 1861, went to Washington to do Christian work in the hospitals and camps in and around that city. His suggestion that a society similar to the United States Sanitary Commission be organized by the Young Men's Christian Associations of the country was acted upon by a convention called for the purpose in New York City, Nov. 14, 1861. The United States Christian Commission was then formed, and George H. Stuart, of Philadelphia, was elected president. The work of the commission was mainly moral and religious; but while it circulated Bibles, books, leaflets, etc., in camps, ships, and hospitals, it also distributed much food, clothing, hospital stores, and delicacies. Like the Sanitary Commission, it followed in the wake of the great armies, and gave efficient aid to the army and navy chaplains in throwing Christian influence around soldiers and sailors. In its benevolent work, the commission expended over $6,000,000, most of which was collected by the women in the different religious denominations.

UNITED STATES COAST SURVEY. See Coast and Geodetic Survey, United States.

UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY, a school for the practical and theoretic education of officers for the military service of the United States. The present academy at West Point was opened in 1802. From that time until November, 1918, 6,539 cadets were graduated. In the latter year, two classes were graduated before the normal time, on account of the necessity for more officers. Provision was made by Congress for larger membership of classes. There were in 1920, 735 cadets and 156 teachers. During recent years a number of new buildings have been erected. The superintendent in 1921