Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/52

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§ 22.
— 14 —

token of doubling, e. g. ܢܱܦܝܩ nappīq "gone forth". How far the gutturals ܥ‍ and ܗ underwent a real doubling is a matter of question; but the treatment of the vocalisation for the most part is the same as if such doubling had occurred (cf. Hebr. בִעַר,‎ מַהֵר). The case is similar with ܪ, which also the East-Syrians at a pretty early date had already ceased to double, but for which they occasionally at least turned a foregoing a into ā.

In many cases the doubling has entered in a secondary way, as in ܐܠܗܐ allāhā "God", ܐܕ݁ܒܚ eddabbaḥ "I sacrifice".

B. The doubling at all events very early fell away, when merely a sheva followed the doubled consonant, e. g. in ܪܷܓ݁ܬ݂ܳܐ "desire", properly regge̊thā, then regthā, and even very early through assimilation (§ 22) rekthā so ܒܷܙܬ݂ܳܐ bezze̊thā "booty", bezthā, besthā. Thus ܡܼܬܓ݁ܫ̣ܫܵܐ "it is touched", properly methgašše̊šā, was early pronounced like methgaššā or even methgašā.

C. A very ancient dissolving of the doubling in the case of r, with compensation in lengthening the vowel, appears to occur in ܓܶܐܪܴܐ gērā "arrow" from garrā; ܚܹܐܪ̈ܶܐ ḥērē (ḥērīn &c.) "free", from ḥarrē; ܒܹܪ̈ܝܴܬܴܐ bēryāthā "streets" from barryāthā. Thus perhaps also ܨܶܝܕ݂ (ܨܶܝ̈ܕ݂ܰܗ̄ܝ &c.) "with" from ṣadd.

D. Consonants written double were originally separated by a vowel, though very short, e. g. ܣܡܡ̈ܐ φάρμακα samåmē, later sammē, ܓܠ̈ܠܐ "waves" galålē, later gallē ܓܕ̈ܕܐ "wormwood" gedådē, later geddē. By a false analogy even ܣܡ̈ܡܢܐ φάρμακα sammānē is accordingly often written instead of ܣܡ̈ܢܐ, and in fact ܣܡܡܐ for the singular instead of ܣܡܐ sammā and similarly in like cases. An actual exception to that rule is furnished only by cases like ܐܬܬܣܝܡ or ܐܬܣܝܡ ette̊sīm "was set"; ܐܬܬܥܝܪ or ܐܬܥܝܪ ette̊ʿīr "was awakened" &c. (§§ 36. 177 B).

In Greek words letters are sometimes written double, even when such doubling does not occur in the original, e. g. ܦܝܠܠܝܦܘܣ Φίλιππος often instead of ܦܝܠܝܦܘܣ or ܦܝܠܝܦܦܘܣ.

Assimilation. § 22. When two consonants came together in the living speech, and still more in the somewhat artificial recitation of the Bible in religious service, the first consonant was frequently modified by the second, so that a media before a tenuis was turned into a tenuis, a tenuis before