Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/61

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§§ 31—33.
— 23 —

Unusual Abbreviations with Liquids. § 31. We have unusual abbreviations in several nouns which are formed from the doubling of a short root ending in r, l, n, m: thus ܫܹܫܱܠܬܴ݁ܐ, ܫܹܝܫܱܠܬܴ݁ܐ "chain", from šelšaltā (cf. ܫܽܩ̈ܫܠܷܐ "tape-worms"); ܓܺܝܓ݂ܠܴܐ "wheel"; ܓܰܓܱ݁ܪܬܴ݁ܐ "throat" from gargartā; ܩܹܩܢܳܐ, ܩܹܝܩܢܳܐ "plough" from qenqe̊nā; ܫܱܘܫܡܳܢܳܐ[1] "an ant", probably from ܫܱܡܫܡܳܢܳܐ, and one or two others.

n becoming l in foreign words. § 31b. n beginning a word becomes l in several foreign words, like ܠܘܡܐ, along with ܢܘܡܐ, from νοῦμμος, nummus; ܠܱܡܜܳܐ with ܢܱܡܜܳܐ, from the Persian namat "carpet".

 
Gutturals.

GUTTURALS.

Falling away of initial ܐ. § 32. ܐ for the most part loses in Syriac its consonantal sound. As an initial sound it falls away along with its vowel in many words to which it belongs: ܐ̄ܢܳܫ or ܢܳܫ, ܐ̄ܢܳܫܳܐ, ܐ̄ܢܳܫܦܺܝܢ, ܢܳܫܺܝܢ "man", "men", &c.; ܐܺܚܪܹܝܢ or ܚܪܹܝܢ, ܐ̄ܚܪܹܬ݂ܳܐ, &c. "another"; ܐ̄ܚܪܴܝܴܐ or ܚܪܴܝܴܐ "last", ܐ̄ܚܪܴܝܬܷ݁ܗ "his last", &c.; ܐ̄ܚܝܳܢܳܐ "related"; ܐ̄ܢܳܐ or ܢܳܐ in certain cases for ܐܷܢܳܐ "I". Even in writing, this ܐ is without exception wanting in ܚܰܪܬ݂ܳܐ "end"; ܚܰܕ, ܚܕܳܐ "one" (m. and f.); ܚܳܬ݂ܳܐ "sister"; ܚܶܬܴ݁ܐ "pocket" (bag), and "bearing beam" (rafter) (v. אחד); ܬܴܐ, ܬܱܘ, &c. "come"; ܙܶܠ, ܙܶܠܝ, &c. "go"; ܘܱܙܳܐ, ܘܱܙܬܴܐ "goose", from אֱוַזָּא; ܕܶܝܢ (properly "there"[errata 1]) = אֱדַיִן.

Treatment of medial ܐ. § 33. A. As a medial, ܐ disappears completely according to the usual pronunciation, when it immediately follows a consonant or a mere sheva; and the vowel of the ܐ is transferred to the preceding consonant. Thus (a) ܡܱܜܶܐܒ݂ maṭev "makes good" for maṭʾev; ܢܶܫܱܐܠ "demands" for nešʾal; ܣܴܢܳܐܐ "hater"; ܜܰܡܱܐܬ݂ "unclean" f. (constr. st.) &c. (b) ܜܶܐܒ "was good" ṭev for ṭe̊ʾev; ܫܐܺܝܠܴܐ šīlā "demanded" (part.); ܦܷܐܐ "beautiful"; ܦܱ̈ܐܒ݂ܳܐ "beautiful" (pl.); ܟܳܐܬ݂ܳܐ "blaming", &c. So too after prefixes: ܕܰܐܒ݂ܳܐ "of the father", from ܐܱܒܳܐ + ܕ; ܠܾܐܘܡܳܢܳܐ "to the artificer" lummānā; ܘܷܐܟ݂ܰܠ "and ate"; ܒܱܐܝܕ݁ܳܐ "in what? (f.)" &c. In writing, such an ܐ is always left out in ܒܺܝܫ "bad", from בְאִישׁ, in ܡܱܠܷܦ݂, ܬܱܠܷܦ݂ "teaches", "teachest", &c. for מְאַלֵּף, &c.; farther, generally in the compound ܐܴܦܷܢ for ܐܴܦ݂ ܐܷܢ "although".


  1. This vocalisation with au is much better supported than that with u (ܫܽܘܫܡܳܢܳܐ).
Errata:
  1. Correction: "there" should be amended to "then": detail