Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/67

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.
§§ 41—43.
— 29 —

ܡܱܪܩܝܘܿܢ Μαρκίων, together with ܡܱܪܩܺܝܘܿܢ; ܕܝܱܬܹܝܩܹܐ διαθήκη (along with ܕܺܝܱܬܹܝܩܹܐ); ܦܪܷܜܘܿܪܻܝܘܿܢ πραιτόριον (and ܦܪܷܜܘܿܪܻܝܢ) &c.

ܘ and ܝ as representing the 2nd and 3rd radical. § 41. In Semitic inflection ā appears instead of a theoretical aya, or awa, e. g. qām(a) "stood", like qaṭal(a) "killed"; galāt (Syriac ge̊lāth) "she revealed", like qaṭalat: ī instead of awī, e. g. qīm "stood (part.)" for qawīm, &c.

But in these cases the question turns very little indeed upon actual sound-transitions. Of quite predominant importance here, are those ancient analogical modes of formation, which mount up to a time long before the separation of the several individual Semitic tongues.

 
2. Vowels.

2. VOWELS.

LONG AND SHORT VOWELS IN OPEN AND CLOSED SYLLABLES.

Long vowels. § 42. Long vowels in open syllables remain unshortened. Syriac however has closed syllables with long vowels, even in the middle of the word, e. g. ܩܳܡܬ݁ܘܿܢ "ye stood" (2. m. pl.), ܐܱܩܺܝܡܬ݁ܘܿܢ "ye raised", and later formations like ܒܪܻܝܟ݂ܬܴ݁ܐ (first from be̊rīkhe̊thā) "benedicta", ܝܴܬ݂ܒܻ݁ܝܢ "sit" (part.), ܐܱܥܻܝܪܬܷ݁ܗ "I awoke him", &c. The East-Syrians have a marked inclination to shorten long vowels in closed syllables, and accordingly they often write straight away ܥܲܠܡ̈ܝܼܢ "eternities", for ܥܵܠܡ̈ܝܼܢ, ܥܴܠܡܻ̈ܝܢ, &c., and so too in the final syllables of ܐܸܬܲܬ for ܐܸܬ݂ܵܬ݂ "she came", (ܐܷܬ݂ܳܬ݂), &c. On the other hand they incline to lengthen short vowels in an open syllable, if these are exceptionally retained, and thus, e. g., regularly write ܐܲܪܡܝܵܬܹܗ "she threw it (m.)" for ܐܱܪܡܝܱܬ݂ܶܗ.

Rem.—As they have ceased to notice that the ◌ܵ, which they perhaps write in ܟܵܬܒܝܼܢ but pronounce short, is a long vowel, they set down now and then ◌ܵ for short a, e. g. ܡܵܠܦܝܼܢ for ܡܲܠܦܝܼܢ, ܡܱܠܦܺܝܢ "they teach" (part.).

Short vowels. § 43. A. Short vowels in closed syllables remain; but in open syllables short vowels have, in Aramaic, at a very early stage passed mostly into sheva mobile. This occurrence is precisely what has given the language its characteristic stamp. Thus, for instance, ܩܜܰܠ qe̊ṭal from qaṭal "killed"; ܕܗܰܒ݂ from dahav (cf. ܕܰܗܒ݂ܳܐ) "gold"; ܡܱܡܠܟ݂ܺܝܢ from mamlīkhīn