Variation of weak roots. § 58. Weak roots vary a good deal in their weak letters. Thus חמם, חום, חמי, יהם (to which is added another secondary form חמת) are essentially modifications only of the same fundamental root, which means "hot". In particular, roots עו׳ and עע׳ are very closely related. Thus also in Syriac they very readily change into one another: the substantive belonging to פדד "to err" (Perf. ܦܱܕ, Impf. ܢܷܦܷ݁ܕ) is ܦܱܘܕ݁ܐ, as if from פוד; and along with the frequently occurring חנן "to pity" חון is found (Perf. ܚܳܢ, Impf. ܢܚܽܘܢ), and with כפף "to bend", כוף, &c.
Roots med. gem. § 59. Forms med. gem. in Syriac attain like weight with that of the strong forms, by doubling not the second radical, but the first, when it is possible, i. e. when a prefix ending in a vowel precedes it. Thus from גזז "to shear" ܐܱܓܷ݁ܙ aggez (answering to ܐܱܘܜܶܠ); ܐܷܓ݁ܘܿܙ eggoz (= ܐܷܩܜܘܿܠ); ܢܷܓ݁ܙܽܘܢ negzūn, properly negge̊zūn (= ܢܷܩܜܠܽܘܢ); ܬܱܚ̈ܒ݂ܳܢ "you (fem. pl.) love" (= ܬܱܩ̈ܜܠܴܢ, from חבב); ܡܱܚܡܳܐ "boiler" (from חמם "to warm"; ܡܱܥܠܴܐ, ܡܱܥܱܠܬ݁ܐ, ܡܱ̈ܥܴܠܷܐ "entrance", &c.
Yet in some nouns we find the general Semitic method,—i. e. the method of either directly or virtually doubling the third radical, even with the prefixes mentioned: thus ܡܚܰܜܳܐ "needle" (not ܡܱܚܜܳܐ); ܡܓ݂ܶܢܳܐ or ܡܓ݂ܰܢܳܐ (East-Syrian) "shield"; ܡܜܰܠܬ݂ܐ "a booth" (me̊ṭalthā, properly me̊ṭalle̊thā), pl. ܡ̈ܜܰܠܷܐ (me̊ṭallē); ܡܨܰܠܬ݂ܐ "sieve"; ܡܥܱܪܬ݂ܳܐ "a cave"; and ܡܬ݂ܘܿܡ, ܡ̈ܬ݂ܘܿܡܱܘܗ̄ܝ, &c., mostly used adverbially, "completion" (תמם), "continually".
Two l's stand beside each other like two different consonants in ܡܱܡܠܠܐ "speech"; ܡܱܜܠܠܷܐ "cover, shelter" (§ 46); and the quadriliteral form ܩܽܘܒܠܠܴܐ "face". In these formations, however, the l is again dropped in the usual pronunciation (§ 29), so that in point of fact the regular form makes its appearance. Add the peculiar form ܐܱܝܠܷܠܐ, ܐܱܝܠܠܱܬ &c. "to lament". The following appear to be later formations: ܬܱܗܠܱܠܬܴܐ "mockery", from ܐܱܗܶܠ (הלל); and from ܐܷܬܚܰܢܱܢ, ܬܱܚܢܱܢܬܴ݁ܐ "a prayer". Thus, farther, regularly in the Ethpeel ܐܷܬܓܙܶܙ "was shorn" (as compared with ܓܰܙ "shore").
- ܡܰܪܩܩܳܐ, formed in this way Judges 3, 22 "a part of the abdomen" is pronounced marqā, but others read ܡܱܪܩܳܩܳܐ.
- ܫܱܟ݂ܠܷܠ "to finish" is a word borrowed from the Assyrian.