Page:Compendious Syriac Grammar.djvu/85

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§§ 67—69.
— 47 —
 
 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

Demonstrative pronouns. § 67. (a) For what is nearer; "this": masc. ܗܳܢ, ܗܳܢܳܐfem. ܗܳܕܶܐ: Plural ܗܳܠܷܝܢ (m. and f.).

Rem. A rarer secondary form from ܗܳܕܶܐ is ܗܳܕ.

We get ܗܳܢܱܘ with ܗ̄ܘ (§ 38). For ܗܶܕܶܐ comes a ܗܳܕܳܐ before ܗ̄ܝ, thus ܗܳܕܳܐ ܗ̄ܝ hāδāi (hōδōi).

(b) For what is more distant; "that": masc. ܗܱ̇ܘ; fem. ܗܴ̇ܝ; Plural masc. ܗܴ̇ܢܘܿܢ, fem. ܗܴ̇ܢܷܝܢ.

Rem. 1. ܗ̇ܢܘܢ, ܗ̇ܢܝܢ "illi, illae" must not be too closely associated with ܗܳܢܳܐ "hic", merely because of a causal similarity of sound. The forms for "this" are compounded out of den, de̊nā, , illēn with (§ 62); those for "that", out of the personal pronouns , , hennōn, hennēn with .

Rem. 2. Only in very old writings there appear in isolated instances the farther forms ܗܠܘܟ "illi", ܗܠܝܟ "illae", and ܗܢܘܟ "illi" (a fem. form corresponding to the last is not known); the three forms given may be pronounced something like hālōkh, hālēkh; hānōkh. Very rarely indeed there appears also ܗܢ = *ܗܳܠܷܝܢ "hi, hae".

 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

Interrogative pronouns. § 68. ܡܰܢ "who?". ܡܳܐ, ܡܳܢ, ܡܘܿܢ, ܡܳܢܳܐ "what?".

With ܗ̄ܘ, ܗ̄ܝ: ܡܱ̇ܢܽܘܼ, and fem. ܡܰܢ ܗܻ̄ܝ "who?, who is?". ܡܴ̇ܢܱܘ "what is?". Rarely ܡܘܢܐ for ܡܢܐ (§ 44).

ܐܱܝܢܳܐ "which?" or "what?" m.; ܐܱܝܕܳܐ "which?" f.; Pl. ܐܱܝܠܷܝܢ "which?".

Rem. 1. ܡܳܢ, ܡܘܿܢ, ܡܳܢܳܐ, ܟܘܢܐ have sprung from + den, de̊nā; ܐܝܢܐ, ܐܝܕܐ, ܐܝܠܝܢ from the interrogative ai with de̊nā, , illēn.

Rem. 2. ܐܱܝܢܳܐ, &c. is often improperly held as a demonstrative, because, like other interrogatives, it stands as correlative to the relative (§ 236).

 

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.

The relative pronoun. § 69. The relative pronoun is ܕ, ܕܰ (§ 43 E), which has a very wide range of use. The older form still shows itself in the Separate possessive pronoun, formed through its composition with the preposition ܠ‍