Demonstrative pronouns. § 67. (a) For what is nearer; "this": masc. ܗܳܢ, ܗܳܢܳܐ—fem. ܗܳܕܶܐ: Plural ܗܳܠܷܝܢ (m. and f.).
Rem. A rarer secondary form from ܗܳܕܶܐ is ܗܳܕ.
We get ܗܳܢܱܘ with ܗ̄ܘ (§ 38). For ܗܶܕܶܐ comes a ܗܳܕܳܐ before ܗ̄ܝ, thus ܗܳܕܳܐ ܗ̄ܝ hāδāi (hōδōi).
(b) For what is more distant; "that": masc. ܗܱ̇ܘ; fem. ܗܴ̇ܝ; Plural masc. ܗܴ̇ܢܘܿܢ, fem. ܗܴ̇ܢܷܝܢ.
Rem. 1. ܗ̇ܢܘܢ, ܗ̇ܢܝܢ "illi, illae" must not be too closely associated with ܗܳܢܳܐ "hic", merely because of a causal similarity of sound. The forms for "this" are compounded out of den, de̊nā, dē, illēn with hā (§ 62); those for "that", out of the personal pronouns hū, hī, hennōn, hennēn with hā.
Rem. 2. Only in very old writings there appear in isolated instances the farther forms ܗܠܘܟ "illi", ܗܠܝܟ "illae", and ܗܢܘܟ "illi" (a fem. form corresponding to the last is not known); the three forms given may be pronounced something like hālōkh, hālēkh; hānōkh. Very rarely indeed there appears also ܗܢ = *ܗܳܠܷܝܢ "hi, hae".
Interrogative pronouns. § 68. ܡܰܢ "who?". ܡܳܐ, ܡܳܢ, ܡܘܿܢ, ܡܳܢܳܐ "what?".
With ܗ̄ܘ, ܗ̄ܝ: ܡܱ̇ܢܽܘܼ, and fem. ܡܰܢ ܗܻ̄ܝ "who?, who is?". ܡܴ̇ܢܱܘ "what is?". Rarely ܡܘܢܐ for ܡܢܐ (§ 44).
ܐܱܝܢܳܐ "which?" or "what?" m.; ܐܱܝܕܳܐ "which?" f.; Pl. ܐܱܝܠܷܝܢ "which?".
Rem. 1. ܡܳܢ, ܡܘܿܢ, ܡܳܢܳܐ, ܟܘܢܐ have sprung from mā + den, de̊nā; ܐܝܢܐ, ܐܝܕܐ, ܐܝܠܝܢ from the interrogative ai with de̊nā, dā, illēn.
Rem. 2. ܐܱܝܢܳܐ, &c. is often improperly held as a demonstrative, because, like other interrogatives, it stands as correlative to the relative (§ 236).
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.