were cut off, taken prisoners, cruelly held as hostages for quite a period, and finally they were all murdered. Sixteen years later, in 1752, the French and Choctaws, under De Vaudreuil, again attacked the Chickasaws, only to meet another disaster. The Chickasaws are described as the bravest and most warlike of all the Indian inhabitants of Alabama. They finally dwindled away before the advance of civilization, but were never conquered by armed forces.
The aggressive English finally, in 1765, established themselves in Alabama, an agreement being made by which the territory then included under the name of Illinois was extended as far south as 32° 28′, about the latitude of Demopolis. The claim of the Spaniards to Florida was based upon their treaty with England of 1783, and for many years there was incessant border warfare between the Spaniards and their Indian allies on one side and the colonists (mostly from Georgia) and their native allies on the other. This subjected our early settlers to almost constant Indian incursions for booty and massacre.
During this period the French were carrying on trade near the site of the present cities of Tuscumbia and Florence, and, mainly due to their influence, the Creeks and Cherokees were active in their hostilities upon the American settlers.
The war for independence between the colonists and Great Britain, which lasted from 1775 to 1781, was confined to the lakes, the Atlantic coast and adjacent territory, and the country now known as Alabama can hardly be said to have been affected thereby. The colonial government having been firmly established, Col. James Robinson in 1787 marched from the Cumberland region into Alabama against the depredating Indians. They were subdued for a time, but again renewed hostilities, until finally quelled by a band of brave Americans under Captain Shannon.