INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS 333
astronomical and geographical globes; plans, sketches and plastic works relating to geography or geology, topography or architecture, or any other science ; and finally, every production in the literary and artistic field, which may be published by any method of im- pression or reproduction." Copyright was defined (art. 3) as the exclusive right to dispose of the work, to publish, to sell and translate it or authorize trans- lation, and to reproduce it in any manner, in whole or in part.
The "indispensable" condition of copyright was Indispensa- (art. 4) a petition from the author or his representa- ^^^ condition tive to the proper office, presumably of his own gov- ernment, with two deposit copies, and if he desired recognition in other countries, with additional copies for each country designated, which copies were to be forwarded to the respective governments accom- panied by a copy of the certificate of registration. Authors were secured (art. 5) in each country the rights granted by their own government within the term of protection of the country of origin — in works published in installments, the term of copy- right to date from the publication of each part. The country of origin was defined (art. 6) as that of first publication, or in case of simultaneous publication, that having the shortest period of protection. The name or acknowledged pseudonym on a work (art. 9) was accepted as indication of the author except on proof to the contrary.
Authorized translations or those of non-protected Special works (art. 7) could be copyrighted as original works. Provisions but not to the exclusion of other versions of the lat- ter. Newspaper articles might be reproduced (art. 8) on acknowledgment of source and author's name, if given; addresses before legislative assemblies, court or public meetings (art. 10) might be freely repro-