Page:Cyclopaedia, Chambers - Volume 2.djvu/20

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apply it to a Perlon who his the Care and Intenckncy of a Mofque, who is always there the fujft, and reads Pray- ers to the People, which they repeat after him.

The word Imam is alio applied by way of Excellence to the four Chiefs, or Founders of the four principal Sects in theMabometuB Religion. ThussJli is the Imam of the Fer- ftans, or of the Seft of Schiaiens; Abu-beker the Imam of the Stamens, which is the Sect follow'd by the Turks. Sa- fin or Saf-y, the Imam of another Seft, lye. The Maho- metans don't agree among themfclves about the Imamat or Dignity of the Imam. Some think it of divine Right, and attach'd to a fingle Family, as the Pontificate of Aaron. Others hold, that it is indeed of divine Right, but deny it to be fo attach'd to any fingle Family, as that it may not be transfer'd to another. They add, that the Imam is to be clear of all grofs Sins, and that ofherwife he may be de- pofed, and his Dignity confer'd on another. However this be, 'tis certain that after an Imam has once been own'd as fuch, by the Muffulmen, he who denies that his Authority comes immediately from God, is accounted impious; he who does not obey him, a Rebel; and he who pre- tends to contradicf what he fays, a Fool, among the or- thodox of that Religion.

1MBARGO, a Stop or Stay put upon Ships ufually by public Authority.

IMBECILITY, is a State of Languor, or Decay, wherein the Body is not able to perform its ufual Exer- cifesor Functions.

1MBEZZLE, to waffe, fcatterand confume; as where a Perfon intruded with Goods, walles and diminifhes them, he is faid to imbez-zle them.

IMBIBE, is ufed commonly in the fame Senfe as abforb; as where a dry porous Body takes up another that is moift.

IMBRICATED, is ufed by lb me Botanifls to exprefs the Figure of the Leaves of fome Plants, which are hol- low like an Imbrex, or Gutter Tile.

IMITATION, in Millie, is where one Party imitates the ringing of another either throughout the whole Piece, which is one of the Kinds of Canon, or only during fome Meafures, which is a fimple Imitation. Sometimes the Mo- tion or the Figure of the Notes, alone, is imitated ; and that, fometimes even by a contrary Motion, which makes what they call a Retrograde Imitation. The Imitation differs from the Fugue, in regard, in the former the Repetition muil be a ad, a ;d, a 6th, 7th, or 9th, either above or below the firfl Voice : Whereas were the Repetition to an Unifon a 4th, 5th, or Sth, it would be a Fugue.

IMMACULATE, without Slain or Sin: A Term much ufed among the Romanics, when fpeaking of the Concep- tion of the Bleffed Virgin, they call it immaculate .- inti- mating that flic was free from Original Sin. When the Cap is given to a Doctor of the Sorbonne, he is obliged to fwear that he will defend the immaculate Conception. This was decreed by an Act of the Sorbonne in the 14th Centu- ry ; in imitation of which, 80 other Univerfities made the fame Order. The Military Orders in Spun are all fo- lemnly obliged to defend this Prerogative of the Virgin. See Conception.

Congregation of the Immaculate Conception. In mofl Nun- neries rhere is a Society of fecular Maids, whofe End is to honour the immaculate Conception : Of which they make a public Proteflation every Year, and a private one every Day.

IMMANENT: A Term in Logic. The Schoolmen diitingui/h two kinds of Actions ; the one tranfitory, which pafs from the Agent to the Patient ; the other immanent, which continue in the Agent.

IMMATERIAL, fomething devoid of Matter ; or that is pure Spirit. Thus God, Angels, the Human Soul, are immaterial Beings. Flato argues the Immateriality of the Soul from thefe fix Topics. I. From its Simplicity, z. From its Independency on the Body, which is two-fold ; in its EJfe and its Operare, in exiiling, and in acting or opera- ting feparately. 3. From its Rule and Authority over the Eody. 4. From its Likenefs and Similitude to God, which difcovers itfelf in the Pleafure it enjoys in fpiritual Things, in its aiming at fpiritual Objects, &c. 5. From its fpiritual Manner of perceiving material Objects. Lafl- ly, From its Indivifibility, Capacity, Activity, Immorta- lity, iSc.

IMMEDIATE, that which precedes or follows fome other thing without any Interpofirion.

IMMEDIATE, alio fignifies fomething that acts with- out Means, without Medium, as immediate Grace an imme- diate Caufe, &c. There have been great Difputes among Divines about immediate Grace. The queflion in debate was, Whether Grace acted on the Heart and Mind bv an immediate Efficacy, independent of all externa! Circum- ifances; or, Whether a certain Affemblage and Improve- ment of Circumliancesjoin'd to the Minifiery of the Word might produce a Converfion of Soul.



IMMEMORIAL, an Epithet given to the Time or Duration of any thing, whofe Beginning we know no- thing of: m a legal Senfe, a thing is faid to be of Time immemorial, or Time out of mind, that was before the Reign of our King Edward II.

IMMENSE, is that whofe Amplitude or Extenfion no Finite Meaiure whatfoever, or how oft foever repeated can equal. *

IMMERSION, an Action by which any thing is plun- ged into Water or other Fluid. In the firft Ages of Chri- ffianity, Baptifm was performed by lmmerfion ; by three Immerjions. The Cuftorn of lmmerfion is Hill preferved in Portugal, and among the Anabaptifls in other Parts. lm- merfion, in Pharmacy, is a Preparation of fome Medicine by letting it ffeep for fome time in Water, in order to' take fome ill Faculty or Tafle from it : as is done in Rhu- barb, to moderate its Force ; in Lime, ro take away its Salt ; and in Olives, which are preferved in Brine,

IMMERSION, in Aflronomy, is when a Star or Pla- ner is fo near the Sun with regard to our Obfervations, that we cannot fee it; being as it were envelop'd and hid in the Rays of that Luminary. lmmerfion is alfo the Beginning of an Eclipfe of the Moon ; that is, the mo- ment when the Moon begins to be darkned, and to enter into the Shadow of the Earth. And the fame Term is ufed with regard to an Eclipfe of the Sun, when the Disk of the Moon begins to cover ir. Emerfion is the Term oppoiite to Immerfon, and fignifies the moment wherein the Moon begins to come out of the Shadow of the Earth ; or the Sun begins to fhow the Parts of his Disk which were hid before. Immerfmn is frequently applied to the Satellites of Jupiter, and efpecially to the firfl Satellite ; the Obfervation whereof is of fo much Ufe for difcover- ing the Longitude. The lmmerfion of that Satellite is the^moment in which it appears to enter within the Disk of Juf iter; and its Emerfion the moment wherein it ap- pears to come out. The Immerfions are obferved from the lime of the Conjunflion of jupiter with the Sun, to the Time of his Oppofition: And the Emerfions from the T nne of his Oppofition to his Conjunflion. The peculiar Advantage of thefe Obfervations, is, that during eleven Months of the Year, they may be made, at leaf!, every other Day. 1 he Pirfeflion of this Theory, and the Prax- is thereon, we owe to M.CaJfni.

IMMORTAL, that which will lad to all Eternity, that has in itfelf no Principle of Alteration or Corruption! Thus God and the Human Soul are immortal. Plato de- fines Immortality, ima. iu-^y®- £ uij)'& uoti, animated Ef- Jence and eternal Uanflon ; and" proves the Immortality of the Soul from two kinds of Arguments; the one Arti- ficial, the other Inartificial. Inartificial Arguments are Teftimonies and Authorities, whereof he cites feveral, and adds in general, that all the great Men and Poets,' who had any thing divine in 'em, afferted the Immortality of the Soul. His Artificial or proper Arguments are either fpeculative or practical : Of the firfl kind are thofe drawn, 1. From the fimple, uniform, fpiritual and divine Nature of the Soul. z. From its infinite Capacity. 3. From its defiring and longing after Immortality, and its inward Horror of filling into Nothing ; proving it abfurd that the Soul fhould die, when Life is its proper and ade- quate Object. 4. From its rational Activity ; proving that whatever has in itfelf a Principle of rational and fponta- neous Motion, by which it tends towards fome fupreme Good, is immortal. 5. From the various Ideas which it has of fpiritual things; particularly from the Idea it has of Immortality, g. From its Immateriality. His practical or moral Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul, are drawn, 1. From the Juftice of God, which can never fuf- fer the Wicked to efcape unpunifhed, nor the Good un- rewarded after Death, z. From that Dependance which Religion has on this Opinion, in regard, without this Per- fuafion there would be no Religion in the World, s. From the Opinion which Men have, that Juftice and every kind of Virtue are to be cultivated, that th.»y may at laft live with God. 4. From the Stings of Confcience, and anxious Sollicitude we are under about a future State

IMMUNITY, a Privilege or Exemption from fome Office, Duty, or Impofition : It is particularly underffood of the Liberties granted to Cities and Communities. The Princes heretofore granted all kind of Immunities to Ec- cleiiaffics, exempting them from all Impofitions ; but the Ecclefiaflics of thofe Days were not fo rich as thofe of ours : They gave all they had to the Poor. There is Mill a Privilege of Immunity in fome Places, and efpecially in Italy, belonging to Ecclefiaftical Things and' Perfons ; thefe are exempted from certain Dues, and are fhelter'd from the Purfuits of Juttice. Tho, there are fome Crimes for which they cannot plead the Privileges of Immunity, as premeditated Murder $$c.

IMMUTABILITY, the Condition of fomething that cannot change. Immutability is one of the Divine Attri- butes.