were of several kinds; the King sometimes appointed a governor of his own choice, who ruled a portion of the New World in the name and under the immediate orders of the Crown; this is the colonial system adopted by the other countries of Europe. Sometimes grants of certain tracts were made by the Crown to an individual or to a company, in which case all the civil and political power fell into the hands of one or more persons, who, under the inspection and control of the Crown, sold the lands and governed the inhabitants. Lastly, a third system consisted in allowing a certain number of emigrants to constitute a political society under the protection of the mother-country, and to govern themselves in whatever was not contrary to her laws. This mode of colonization, so remarkably favourable to liberty, was only adopted in New England.
- This was the case in the State of New York.
- Maryland, the Carolinas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey were in this situation. See Pitkin's History, vol. i. p. 11—31.
- See the work entitled ‘Historical Collection of State Papers
and other authentic Documents intended as materials for an History
of the United States of America, by Ebenezer Hasard. Philadelphia,
1792,’ for a great number of documents relating to the commencement
of the colonies, which are valuable from their contents and
their authenticity: amongst them are the various charters granted
by the King of England, and the first acts of the local governments.
See also the analysis of all these charters given by Mr. Story, Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the Introduction to his Commentary on the Constitution of the United States. It results from these documents that the principles of representative, government and the external forms of political liberty were introduced into all the colonies at their origin. These principles were