Page:Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1870) - Volume 3.djvu/123

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PA'NDARUS (Πάνδαρος.) 1. A son of Lycaon, a Lycian, commanded the inhabitants of Zeleia on mount Ida, in the Trojan war. He was distinguished in the Trojan army as an archer, and was said to have received his bow from Apollo. He was slain by Diomedes, or, according to others, by Sthenelus. He was afterwards honoured as a hero at Pinara in Lycia. (Hom. Il. ii. 824, &c., v. 290, &c. ; Serv. ad Aen. v. 496 ; Strab. xiv. p. 665 ; Philostr. Her. iv. 2.)

2. A son of Alcanor, and twin-brother of Bitias, was one of the companions of Aeneas, and slain by Turnus. (Virg. Aen. ix. 672, 758.) [L. S.]

PANDE'MOS (Πάνδημος), i. e. "common to all the people," occurs as a surname of Aphrodite, and that in a twofold sense, first describing her as the goddess of low sensual pleasures as Venus vulgivaga or popularis, in opposition to Venus (Aphrodite) Urania, or the heavenly Aphrodite. (Plat. Sympos. p. 180; Lucret. iv. 1067.) She was represented at Elis by Scopas riding on a ram. (Paus. vi. 25. § 2.) The second sense is that of Aphrodite uniting all the inhabitants of a country into one social or political body. In this respect she was worshipped at Athens along with Peitho (persuasion), and her worship was said to have been instituted by Theseus at the time when he united the scattered townships into one great body of citizens. (Paus. i. 22. § 3.) According to some authorities, it was Solon who erected the sanctuary of Aphrodite Pandemos, either because her image stood in the agora, or because the hetaerae had to pay the costs of its erection. (Harpocrat. and Suid. s.v. Athen. xiii. p. 569.) The worship of Aphrodite Pandemos also occurs at Megalopolis in Arcadia (Paus. viii. 32. § 1), and at Thebes (ix. 16. § 2). A festival in honour of her is mentioned by Athenaeus (xiv. p. 659). The sacrifices offered to her consisted of white goats. (Lucian, Dial. Meret. 7; comp. Xenoph. Sympos. 8. § 9; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 101; Theocrit. Epigr. 13.) Pandemos occurs also as a surname of Eros. (Plat. Symp. l.c.) [L. S.]

PANDI'ON (Πανδίων) 1. A son of Aegyptus and Hephaestine. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5.)

2. A son of Phineus and Cleopatra. (Apollod. iii. 15. § 3 ; Schol. ad Soph. Ant. 980 ; comp. Phineus.)

3. One of the companions of Teucer. (Hom. Il. xii. 372.)

4. A son of Erichthonius, the king of Athens, by the Naiad Pasithea, was married to Zeuxippe, by whom he became the father of Procne and Philomela, and of the twins Erechtheus and Butes. In a war against Labdacus, king of Thebes, he called upon Tereus of Daulis in Phocis, for assistance, and afterwards rewarded him by giving him his daughter Procne in marriage. It was in his reign that Dionysus and Demeter were said to have come to Attica. (Apollod. iii. 14, § 6, &c.; Paus. i. 5. § 3 ; Thucyd. ii. 29.)

5. A son of Cecrops and Metiadusa, was likewise a king of Athens. Being expelled from Athens by the Metionidae, he fled to Megara, and there married Pylia, the daughter of king Pylas. When the latter, in consequence of a murder, emigrated into Peloponnesus, Pandion obtained the government of Megara. He became the father of Aegeus, Pallas, Nisus, Lycus, and a natural son, Oeneus, and also of a daughter, who was married to Sciron (Apollod. iii. 15. § 1, &c.; Paus. i. 5. § 2, 29. § 5 J Eurip. Med. 660). His tomb was shown in the territory of Megara, near the rock of Athena Aethyia, on the sea-coast (Paus. i. 5. § 3), and at Megara he was honoured with an heroura (i. 41. § 6). A statue of him stood at Athens, on the acropolis, among those of the eponymic heroes (i. 5. § 3, &c.). [L. S.]

PANDIO'NIDAE (Πανδιονίδαι), a patronymic of Pandion, i. e. the sons of Pandion, who, after their father's death, returned from Megara to Athens, and expelled the Metionidae. Aegeus, the eldest among them, obtained the supremacy, Lycus the eastern coast of Attica, Nisus Megaris, and Pallas the southern coast. (Apollod. iii. 15. § 6 ; Paus. i. 5. § 4 ; Strab. ix. p. 392 ; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 285 ; Dionys. Perieg. 1024.) [L. S.]

PANDO'RA (Πανδώρα), i. e. the giver of all, or endowed with every thing, is the name of the first woman on earth. When Prometheus had stolen the fire from heaven, Zeus in revenge caused Hephaestus to make a woman out of earth, who by her charms and beauty should bring misery upon the human race (Hes. Theog. 571, &c. ; Stob. Serm. 1). Aphrodite adorned her with beauty, Hermes gave her boldness and cunning, and the gods called her Pandora, as each of the Olympians had given her some power by which she was to work the ruin of man. Hermes took her to Epimetheus, who forgot the advice of his brother Prometheus, not to accept any gift from Zeus, and from that moment all miseries came down upon men (Hes. Op. et Dies, 50, &c.). According to some mythographers, Epimetheus became by her the father of Pyrrha and Deucalion (Hygin. Fab. 142 ; Apollod. i. 7. § 2 ; Procl. ad Hes. Op. p. 30, ed. Heinsius ; Ov. Met. i. 350) ; others make Pandora a daughter of Pyrrha and Deucalion (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 23). Later writers speak of a vessel of Pandora, containing all the blessings of the gods, which would have been preserved for the human race, had not Pandora opened the vessel, so that the winged blessings escaped irrecoverably. The birth of Pandora was represented on the pedestal of the statue of Athena, in the Parthenon at Athens (Paus. i. 24. § 7). In the Orphic poems Pandora occurs as an infernal awful divinity, and is associated with Hecate and the Erinnyes (Orph. Argon. 974). Pandora also occurs as a surname of Gaea (Earth), as the giver of all. (Schol. ad Aristoph. Av. 970; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. vi. 39 ; Hesych. s.v.) [L. S.]

PANDO'RUS (Πάνδωρος). 1. A son of Erechtheus and Praxithea, and grandson of Pandion, founded a colony in Euboea. (Apollod. iii. 15. § 1 ; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 281.)

2. A surname of the Earth, in the same sense as Pandora, and of Aesa, or Fate. (Hom. Epigr. 7. 1 ; Stob. Eclog. i. p. 165, ed. Heeren.) [L. S.]

PA'NDROSOS (Πάνδροσος), i. e. "the all-bedewing," or "refreshing," was a daughter of Cecrops and Agraulos, and a sister of Erysichthon, Herse, and Aglauros. According to some accounts she was by Hermes the mother of Ceryx (Pollux, Onom. viii. 9). She was worshipped at Athens, along with Thallo, and had a sanctuary there near the temple of Athena Polias (Apollod. ii. 14. §§ 2, 6 ; Paus. i. 2. § 5,27. § 3, ix. 35. § l ). Respecting her probable representation in one of the pediments of the Parthenon, see Welcker, in the Class. Mus. vol. iii. p. 380, &c. [L. S.]

PANDUS, LATI'NIUS, propraetor of Moesia in the reign of Tiberius, died in his province, A. D. 19. (Tac. Ann. ii. 66.)