local volunteers from 1859 to 1888, and for forty-two years he was a trustee and governor of Taylor's Educational Institution, Crieff. In 1886 he was chosen moderator of the general assembly of the church of Scotland, and in the same year he was appointed principal of St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, in succession to Principal Tulloch. He received the degree of D.D. from Edinburgh University in 1860, and that of LL.D. from Glasgow in 1886. Trinity College, Dublin, also conferred on him its honorary LL.D. in 1887. He died at St. Andrews on 1 Sept. 1893, and was interred in the cathedral burying-ground.
Cunningham married, in 1846, Susan Porteous, daughter of William Murray, banker, Crieff, and was survived by her and two sons and two daughters. The younger son, Dr. D. J. Cunningham, became distinguished as professor of anatomy at Dublin University.
In 1859 Cunningham published in two volumes 'Church History of Scotland,' carrying the narrative to 1831. In a second revised edition (1882) he reaches 1843, characteristically describing the Free Church secession. Displaying due narrative power and discrimination, and strengthened and illuminated by courageous individuality of opinion and relevant flashes of humour, Cunningham's 'History' is a work of abiding interest and authoritative value. 'The Quakers, an International History,' appeared in 1869; 2nd edit. 1897. Metaphysical from his youth, and an occasional contributor of philosophical articles to the 'Westminster' and 'Edinburgh' Reviews, Cunningham published in 1874 a suggestive but not specially convincing treatise which, however, he thought his best book entitled 'New Theory of Knowing and Known.' He was the author of two numbers in the renowned 'Scotch Sermons' of 1880. In his Croall lectures on 'The Growth of the Church,' 1886, he recognised the potency of evolution in ecclesiastical development, discrediting at the same time the prelatical theory of the divine right of ministers.
[Private information; Scotsman, 2 Sept.; Athenæum of 9 Sept. 1893; personal knowledge.]
CURETON, CHARLES ROBERT (1789–1848), brigadier-general and adjutant-general of the queen's forces in the East Indies, son of a Shropshire gentleman, was born in 1789. He obtained an ensigncy in the Shropshire militia on 21 April 1806, and was soon promoted to be lieutenant. Extravagant habits led to embarrassment, which compelled him to fly from his creditors. Disguising himself as a sailor, and leaving his regimentals on the seabeach, he embarked for London, where he enlisted as Charles Roberts in the 14th light dragoons in 1808. His friends concluded that he was drowned while bathing.
In the following year he was sent to join the headquarters of the regiment at Portalegre in Portugal, carrying with him very satisfactory recommendations from the officers under whom he had served at home. His merits and gallantry in action obtained promotion for him to the rank of corporal and sergeant. He took part with his regiment in the battles of Talavera on 27 July 1809, and Busaco on 27 Sept. 1810. On 1 Oct. following he was wounded in the right leg by a rifle ball in crossing the Mondego near Coimbra. At the battle of Fuentes d'Onor on 3 and 5 May 1811 he received on the 5th a severe sabre cut on the head which fractured his skull, and another on his bridle-hand. In March and April 1812 he took part with his regiment in the third siege and capture on 6 April of Badajos, in the battle of Salamanca on 22 July, the capture of Madrid on 14 Aug., and the battle of Vittoria on 21 June 1813.
Having been sent on some duty to St.-Jean de Luz in this year, he was recognised by an officer on the Duke of Wellington's staff as an old comrade of the Shropshire militia. Wellington made him sergeant of the post to the headquarters of the army, and on 24 Feb. 1814, in recognition of his services, he was gazetted, in his proper name, ensign without purchase in the 40th foot. He served with his new regiment at the battles of Orthes on 27 Feb. 1814, Tarbes on 20 March, and Toulouse on 10 April.
On 20 Oct. 1814 Cureton exchanged into the 20th light dragoons, was promoted to be lieutenant and appointed adjutant on 27 June 1816, and when the regiment was disbanded on 25 Dec. 1818, on the withdrawal of the troops from the occupation of France, he was placed on half-pay, but. was brought into the 16th lancers as lieutenant and adjutant on 7 Jan. 1819. His further commissions were dated: captain 12 Nov. 1825, major 6 Dec. 1833, brevet lieutenant-colonel 23 July 1839, regimental lieutenant-colonel 21 Aug. 1839, and brevet colonel 3 April 1846.
He went to India with his regiment in 1822, when he resigned the adjutancy and served at the second siege of Bhartpur under Viscount Combermere from December 1825 to its capture on 18 Jan. 1826, receiving the medal.
In 1839 Cureton accompanied his regiment