meeting in 1879; was also a fellow of the Zoological and the Linnean Societies, holding office in both, and an active member of the Microscopical Society, being president from 1881 to 1883. He was elected F.R.S. on 4 June 1868.
Duncan's industry was so unflagging that he got through a great amount of work, of both a popular and a scientific character, besides lecturing and examining. He was editor of Cassell's 'Natural History' (6 vols. 1876-82), to which he contributed several important articles. He wrote a 'Primer of Physical Geography' (1882); a small volume of biographies of botanists, geologists, and zoologists entitled 'Heroes of Science' (1882); another on 'The Sea-shore' (1879); and an 'Abstract of the Geology of India,' 1875, which reached a third edition in 1881; besides contributing to various periodicals, assisting in preparing the third edition of Griffith and Henfrey's 'Micrographic Dictionary' (2 vols. 1875), and revising the fourth edition of Lyell's 'Student's Elements of Geology' (1885). His separate scientific papers are not less than a hundred in number, and his 'Supplement' to the 'Tertiary and Secondary Corals' forms a volume in the publications of the Palaeontographical Society. The 'Tertiary Echinoidea of India' (of which he was joint author) appeared in 'Palæontologia Indica,' 1882-6.
He made a special study of the corals and echinids, taking also much interest in the ophiurids, sponges, and protozoa, regarding all questions from the point of view not only of the philosophical zoologist, but also of one who applied the distribution of species to elucidate ancient physical geography. He described the fossil coral fauna of Malta, Java, Hindustan, Australia, Tasmania, and the West Indies, the echinids of Sind, and of other countries. The results of these researches were summed up in two very valuable papers, 'Revision of the Madreporaria,' published by the Linnean Society in 1885, and ' Revision of the Genera and Great Groups of the Echinoidea.' Others papers on the 'Physical Geology of Western Europe during Mesozoic and Camozoic Times, elucidated by the Coral Fauna,' on 'The Formation of Land Masses' (Proc. Geogr. Soc. 1878, p. 68), and the remarkable paper 'On Lakes and their Origin' (Proc. Geol. Assoc. vii. 298), were also important contributions to science. His work was that of 'a great palaeontologist and a strong and original intellect.' He was also an excellent teacher, a genial companion, and a true friend.
Duncan's health began to fail about two years prior to his death, which closed a painful illness on 28 May 1891. He was buried in Chiswick churchyard. He was twice married: in 1851 to Jane Emily Cook, and in 1869, not long after her decease, to Mary Jane Emily Liddel Whitmarsh, who survived him with one son by her. Four sons and seven daughters by the first marriage also survived him.
[Obituary notices in Proc. Linn. Soc. 1890-2, p. 65; Geol. Mag. 1891, p. 332; Quart Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xlviii., Proc. p. 47; Nature, xliv. 387; and information from F. Martin Duncan, esq.]
DUNCKLEY, HENRY (1823–1896), journalist, son of James Dunckley, was born at Warwick on 24 Dec. 1823. With the intention of entering the ministry he went to the baptist college at Accrington, Lancashire, and thence in 1846 to the university of Glasgow, where he graduated B.A. in 1847 and M.A. in 1848. During the latter year he became minister of the baptist church, Great George Street, Salford, and before long joined in the propagandist work of the Lancashire Public School Association. His investigations into the educational needs of the labouring population led him to consider closely their general condition, their habits, tastes, and pursuits, and when the Religious Tract Society invited essays on this subject he submitted one which was awarded a first prize of 100l., and was published in 1851 under the title of ' The Glory and the Shame of Britain: an Essay on the Condition and Claims of the Working Classes, together with the means of securing elevation.' In 1852 the Anti-Cornlaw League offered prizes for essaj's showing the results of the repeal of the corn-law and the free-trade policy, and Dunckley gained the first prize of 250l. by his 'Charter of the Nations, or Free Trade and its Results.' On its publication in 1854 it attracted wide attention. A Dutch translation by P. P. van Bosse appeared at Hoogesand in 1856.
In 1854 Dunckley began to write for the Manchester Examiner and Times,' a leading liberal newspaper, and in 1855 relinquished his ministerial position to become editor of that paper, in succession to Abraham Walter Paulton [q. v.] He conducted the 'Examiner and Times' until 25 Jan. 1889, when it was transferred to new proprietors and its policy changed. His brilliant leading articles greatly increased the influence of the paper and the reputation of the writer, and he received several flattering invitations to join the London press, which, however, he declined.