cially asked to remain, in order to represent Victoria at the inter-colonial conference on methods of census which was held at Hobart, Tasmania, in that year (of which he was elected president), and also to superintend the arrangements for the census of 1891. He accordingly continued to hold his appointment till his death, which took place at his residence, Armadale, near Melbourne, on 23 March 1895, just before his retirement on pension was completed.
Hayter, who was a corresponding member of various learned societies, was awarded medals at exhibitions at Melbourne, Amsterdam, Calcutta, at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition in 1886, and at Paris in 1889. He was created C.M.G. in 1882, an officer of the French order of public instruction the same year, and a chevalier of the order of the Crown of Italy in 1884.
Hayter married in 1855 Susan, daughter of William Dodd of Porchester Terrace, London, who, with one son, the only one left of a large family, survived him.
Hayter, besides being the originator of the 'Victorian Year-book,' was the author of several pamphlets such as 'Notes of a Tour in New Zealand,' 'Notes on the Colony of Victoria ' (1875; 2nd edit. 1876), 'Handbook to the Colony of Victoria' (1884; 2nd edit. 1885). He also published:
- 'School History of Victoria.'
- 'School Geography of Victoria.'
- 'Carboona, a Chapter from the Early History of Victoria '(in verse), reprinted from the ' Victorian Review,' 1885.
- 'My Christmas Adventure, and other Poems,' 1857.
[Mennell's Dict. of Australian Biogr.; The Australian, 30 March 1895; Catalogues Col. Inst. and Col. Office Libr.; private information.]
HAYWOOD, FRANCIS (1796–1858), translator of Kant, was born at Liverpool in 1796. He belonged to the literary circle which surrounded William Roscoe [q. v.] and William Shepherd [q. v.] in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, and formed an especially close friendship with Antonio Panizzi when he came to Liverpool as a protegé of Roscoe's in 1823. Possessed of ample means, he devoted himself to study, and must at an early age have acquired a knowledge of German and of German philosophy and divinity unusual in England at the period, having been in 1828 the anonymous translator of Bretschneider's reply to Hugh James Rose's [q. v.] 'State of Protestantism in Germany,' dealing with the tendencies of German theology. He shortly afterwards undertook a much more difficult task in the translation of Kant's 'Critick of Pure Reason,' previously only accessible to English students unacquainted with German in a French or a Latin version. Haywood's long remained the standard English translation. Published in 1838, it was reprinted with improvements in 1848, and was commended by the chief authority on Kant in Great Britain, Sir William Hamilton, with whom Haywood corresponded respecting it. Its general accuracy was admitted by Max Müller, interested though the latter was in a rival translation. In 1844 Haywood published an analysis of the 'Critick,' designed 'to elucidate the points which still remain unintelligible.' In 1853 he translated the 'Researches into the History of the Roman Constitution' of Wilhelm Ihne, a personal friend. He resided at Edge Lane Hall, near Liverpool, but died at Silliers, Worcestershire, on 29 May 1858. Haywood was Panizzi's surety on occasion of all the latter's appointments at the British Museum, and the warmth of their mutual regard is evinced in their correspondence.
[Pagan's Life of Sir Anthony Panizzi, 1880, i. 54 (with a sketch of Haywood), 100, 331, ii. passim; Gent. Mag. 1858, ii. 201; Brit. Mus. Cat,]
HAYWOOD, WILLIAM (1821–1894), architect and civil engineer, eldest son of W. Haywood of Camberwell, was born on 8 Dec. 1821. He was educated at the Camberwell grammar school, and then became a pupil of Mr. George Aitchison, R.A., architect and surveyor to the St. Katherine's Dock Company.
He began his professional career as an architect, and was responsible for several important private mansions, among which may be mentioned the seat of the Marquis of Downshire at Easthampstead, Berkshire. Being offered, however, in 1845 the appointment of assistant engineer to the commissioners of sewers for the city of London, he abandoned architecture for civil engineering; a year later he was appointed chief engineer to the commissioners. He became a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1853. He was responsible for an enormous number of improvements of various kinds carried out in the central quarter of the metropolis during the forty-nine years he held office. Probably the work by which he will be best remembered is the Holborn Viaduct; this was begun in 1863, and opened by Queen Victoria on 6 Nov. 1869, although at that date the high-level approaches had not been completed. He was also instrumental in the introduction of asphalte for the roadways of the city in 1869.