Oxford. In 1858 he represented the queen at the second interment of the great Napoleon in the Hotel des Invalides at Paris; in 1865 he was appointed constable of the Tower of London; and in 1868, when he resigned his post of inspector-general of fortifications, he was made a field-marshal, and granted a pension of 1,500l. a year by parliament. All his hopes were centred in his only son. Captain Hugh Burgoyne, R. N. [q. v.], who had been one of the first recipients of the Victoria cross; and when that son was lost in the Captain, in the Bay of Biscay, in September 1870, he felt that he had little left to live for. He himself died a year afterwards, at 5 Pembridge Square, on 7 Oct. 1871.
[The chief authority for Burgoyne's life is the Life and Correspondence of Field-marshal Sir John Fox Burgoyne, Bart., by his son-in-law, Lieut.-col. the Hon. George Wrottesley, R. E., 2 vols. 1873; see also A Sketch of the Life and Death of Field-marshal Sir John Burgoyne, by Major the Rt. Hon. Sir Francis Head, bart., R. E., 1872. Many of his published articles are reprinted in the Military Opinions of Gen. Sir J. F. Burgoyne, collected and edited by Capt. the Hon. G. Wrottesley, R. E., A. D. C., 1859; see also a curious article on the Courtesies of War in Blackwood's Mag. Nov. 1860, and a pamphlet, Our Defensive Forces, 1870, in which he recommended the short service system. For his services in the field see; the Sieges of the Peninsula, by Major-gen. Sir J. T. Jones, bart., G. C. B., and Kinglake's Invasion of the Crimea.]
BURGOYNE, MONTAGU (1750–1836), politician younger son of Sir Roger Burgoyne of Sutton, Bedfordshire, was a member of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Lord North gave him the sinecure office of chamberlain of the till office in the exchequer, worth 1,600l. per annum. He was for many years verderer of Epping Forest, and resided at Mark Hall, Harlow. He was candidate for Essex in 1810, but was defeated by John Archer Houblon. He was author of:
- 'A Letter … on the Necessity of a Reform in Parliament,' 1809.
- 'Account of Proceedings at the late Election for Essex,' 1810.
- 'Speech to the Freeholders of Essex on the last day of the Election,' 1812.
- 'A Collection of Psalms and Hymns.'
- 'An Address to the (Governors of Public Charity Schools … and a particular account of the Potton School of Industry, connected with allotments of land for the labouring poor in the counties of Bedford, Huntingdon, and Cambridge,' 1830.
Burgoyne was a warm friend of the allotment system. He married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Eliab Harvey. It is said that Mr. and Mrs. Burgoyne were entitled to receive, if they did not actually receive, the flitch of bacon at Dunmow.
[Gent. Mag. May 1836, p. 550.]
BURGSTED, WALTER de. [See Berstede.]
BURGUNDY, MARGARET, Duchess of (1503). [See Margaret.]
BURHRED or BURGRÆD (reigned 852–874), king of the Mercians, succeeded Beorhtwulf [q. v.] in 852. Encouraged probably by the descents of the northern pirates, the Welsh, under Roderic Mawr, revolted from Mercia in 853. Burhred and his witan asked help of his over-lord Æthelwulf, the West-Saxon king. His request was readily granted, and the two kings devastated North Wales, conquered Anglesey, and brought the land again under the dominion of the Mercian king. The next year Burhred married Æthelswyth, the daughter of Æthelwulf, at Chippenham. When in 868 the Danes established themselves in Nottingham and threatened Mercia, Burhred and his witan sought the help of Æthelred and Ælfred. The West Saxons and Mercians joined forces and marched to Nottingham. The Danes refused to give battle, and the English laid siege to the town; they were unable to take it, and Burhred made peace with the invaders. Overawed, as it seems, by this united action, the Danes were for a while forced to remain inactive. Before long, however the Mercian kingdom owned the Danish supremacy. When Ecgberht, the Northumbrian king, was turned out of his kingdom in 872, he and Archbishop Wulfhere are said to have been received by Burhred (compiler in Chron. Maj. i. 407). In 874 the Danes conquered Mercia. Burhred fled before them: he went over sea and dwelt at Rome. Before long he died there, and was buried in St. Mary's Church in the English school.
[Anglo-Saxon Chron. i. 122-5, 132,142. Rolls Ser.; Asser. 469, 470, 475, 478, Mon. Hist. Brit.; Æthelweard's Chron. 511, 513. Mon. Hist. Brit.; Florence of Worcester, i. 74, 92. Eng. Hist. Soc.; Matt. Paris, Chronica Majora, i. 407, Rolls Ser.; Green's Conquest of England, 80, 101, 106.]
BURHILL or BURGHILL, ROBERT (1572–1641), divine, born at Dymock, Gloucestershire, was descended from the Burghills of Thinghill, Herefordshire. He entered Corpus Christi College, Oxford, on 13 Jan. 1587–8, and proceeded B.A. on 5 Feb. 1590–1, M.A. on 12 Dec. 1594, B.D. on 7 July 1603, and D.D. on 2 June 1632. He became a probationer fellow of his college on 20 March 1584–5, obtained the rectories of Northwold,