Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 08.djvu/392

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broke out, and in 1847 Campbell was ordered to supersede Captain Macpherson and to take up his old appointment. He at once resumed his old system of government, the headmen and Sam Bye were again expelled, and he ruled the Khonds in his old absolute fashion. In 1849 he had to go to the Cape for his health for two years; in 1853 he was promoted colonel, and in 1855, when he was on the eve of obtaining his colonel's allowances, he finally resigned his appointment, and returned to Scotland after an absence of thirty-six years. Campbell took up his residence at Edinburgh, and on 28 Nov. 1859 he was promoted major-general. In 1861 he published, for private circulation only, a narrative of his operations in Orissa, which was so greatly appreciated that in 1864 he published his 'Personal Narrative,' in which he deplored Macpherson's 'mistakes in judgment.' His book was immediately followed by one by Macpherson's brother, who warmly contested many of Campbell's statements. The controversy created some excitement, and drew such attention to Campbell's undoubted services that on the enlargement of the order of the Star of India and its division into three classes in 1866, he was made a K.C.S.I. In 1867 he was promoted lieutenant-general, and in 1872 general, and in December 1877 he died at Edinburgh.

[See The Campbells of Melfort, by M. O. C., London, 1882; for his Indian services see Narrative of Major-general John Campbell, C.B., of his Operations in the Hill Tracts of Orissa for the Suppression of Human Sacrifice and Infanticide, printed for private circulation, 1861; a Personal Narrative of Thirteen Years' Service among the Wild Tribes of Khondistan, for the Suppression of Human Sacrifice, by Major-general John Campbell, C.B., 1864; Memorials of Service in India, from the correspondence of the late Major Samuel Charters Macpherson, C.B., edited by his brother, William Macpherson; and Orissa, by W. W. Hunter, M.D.]

H. M. S.

CAMPBELL, JOHN FRANCIS (1822–1885), of Islay, writer on highland folklore, geology, and meteorology, eldest son of Walter Frederick Campbell of Islay, by his first wife, Lady Eleanor Charteris, eldest daughter of Francis, seventh earl of Wemyss, was born on 29 Dec. 1822. He was educated at Eton and .the university of Edinburgh. For some time he was a groom-in-waiting, and he occupied various posts connected with the government among others, those of secretary to the lighthouse commission and secretary to the coal commission. He died at Cannes on 17 Feb. 1885.

Campbell devoted a great portion of his leisure to the collection of folklore tales in the western highlands. For this purpose he was in the habit of mixing with the natives in free and easy intercourse, so as to gain their complete confidence, and thus induce them to relate to him stories which the uneducated are so diffident in telling to strangers. In this manner he collected a large number of the traditional mährchen of the district, which he published under the title, ' Popular Tales of the West Highlands orally collected, with a Translation,' 4 vols. 1860-2. Campbell was also a keen observer of nature, and devoted much attention to geology and meteorology, his studies in which gained much benefit by his foreign travel. In 1865 he published 'Frost and Fire, Natural Engines, Toolmarks and Chips, with Sketches taken at home and abroad by a Traveller.' He was the inventor of the sunshine recorder for indicating the varying intensity of the sun's rays, and in 1883 he published a book on 'Thermography.' In 1863 he published anonymously a work by his father, entitled 'Life in Normandy: Sketches of French Fishing, Farming, Cooking, Natural History, and Politics, drawn from Nature,' and in 1865 'A Short American Tramp in the Fall of 1864, by the Editor of "Life in Normandy."' In 1872 he began to issue a series of Gaelic texts under the title, 'Leabhair na Fenine.' He left behind him a large number of volumes dealing with Celtic folklore.

[Burke's Landed Gentry, i. 257; W. S. Ralston, in Athenæum, 1885, i.250; Academy, 1885, xxvii. 151.]

T. F. H.

CAMPBELL, JOHN McLEOD (1800–1872), Scotch divine, son of the Rev. Donald Campbell, was born at Kilninver, Argyllshire in 1800. Most of his early education was derived from his father, and before he went to Glasgow University at the age of eleven he was a good Latin scholar. He remained at Glasgow from 1811 to 1820, during the last three years being a student at the divinity hall, and gaining the prize for an essay on Hebrew poetry. He completed his divinity course at Edinburgh, and in 1821 was licensed as a preacher in the Scotch church by the presbytery of Lorne. The next four years were spent partly in Edinburgh, where he continued his studies, and partly at Kilninver, where he often preached for his father; and in 1825 he was appointed to the important parish of Row, near Cardross. For some years he worked unostentatiously but zealously. During the second year of his ministry at Row he became impressed with the doctrine of 'assurance of faith,' and this