Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 10.djvu/349

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Correspondance Diplomatique Militaire de Marlborough, Heinsius et Hop, edited from the originals by Vreede in 1850, gives important details of negotiations in 1706–7. For the political life see (besides the ordinary books) the Duchess of Marlborough's Account of her Conduct from her first Coming to Court till the year 1710, 1742 (‘digest’ by R. N. Hooke). With this are to be compared The Other Side of the Question, or an Attempt to Rescue the Characters of the two Royal Sisters, Q. Mary and Q. Anne, out of the hands of the D—— D—— of—— in a letter to her Grace, a Woman of Quality, 1742 (by J. Ralph); A Review of a late Treatise entitled Conduct, &c. (with Continuation, both in 1742); and a Full Vindication of the Dutchess Dowager of Marlborough, 1742 (by H. Fielding, but of no other value). The Private Correspondence of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, 2 vols. 1838, contains many letters from herself and her contemporaries, chiefly from Coxe’s manuscripts and the Opinions of the Duchess of Marlborough, reprinted from a volume privately printed by D. Dalgmple, lord Hailes, in 1788, ‘from letters to Lord Stair. Memoirs of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, by Mrs. A. T. Thomson, 2 vols. 1839, is chiefly founded upon the Coxe manuscripts. In 1875 appeared Letters of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, now first printed from the original manuscripts at Madrestleld Court, chiefly to a relation named Jennings (or Jennens) at St. Albans. An account of the manuscripts at Blenheim is given in the eighth report of the Historical MSS. Commission.]

L. S.

CHURCHILL, JOHN SPRIGGS MORSS (1801–1875), medical publisher, third son of the Rev. James Churchill, a dissenting minister, by his wife, a daughter of Mr. George Morss, was born at Ongar in Essex, 4 Aug. 1801. He was educated at Henley grammar school, under the Rev. Dr. George Scobell. In 1816 he was bound an apprentice for seven years to Elizabeth Cox & Son, medical booksellers, of 39 High Street, Southwark. Having served his time he became a freeman of the Stationers’ Company, and then for about eighteen months was employed in the house of Longman & Co. Aided by the fortune of his wife, whom he married in 1832, he started in business on his own account, purchasing the old-established retail connection of Callow & Wilson, 16 Princes Street, Leicester Square. Churchill attended book sales and the sales of medical libraries all over the country, and issued an annual catalogue. The business increased, but not satisfactorily, owing to the new practice of ‘underselling.’ Churchill therefore began to publish, and one of the earliest productions of his press was Liston’s ‘Practical Surgery,’ 1837, of which repeated editions have been demanded. A well-known series of manuals followed. The first was Erasmus Wilson's ‘Anatomist’s Vade Mecum,’ 1840, which was succeeded by Dr. Golding Bird’s ‘Manual of Natural Philosophy, and Diagnosis of Urinary Deposits,’ 1844, and by Fownes’s ‘Manual of Chemistry.' Churchill relied on his own judgment, and had few failures. Of the numerous pamphlets, however, which his house was employed to produce, it is said that only one paid its expenses (Mr. Lawrence's ‘Hunterian Oration,’ 834). In 1838 Churchill became the publisher of the ‘British and Foreign Medical Review.’ At extremely low prices he brought out expensively illustrated works, such as ‘Medical Botany,’ edited by Dr. Stephenson and by his brother James Mores Churchill; Dalrymple's ‘Morbid Anatomy of the Eye,’ Maclise's ‘Surgical Anatomy,’ Sibson’s ‘Medical Anatomy,’ and other works. He issued the anonymous ‘Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation,’ 1844 [see Chambers, Robert]. From 1842 to 1847 he was the publisher of the ‘Lancet,’ and in 1850 he began the ‘Medical Times,’ with which the ‘Medical Gazette’ was amalgamated in 1852. In 1854 he removed from Princes Street to New Burlington Street, gave up retail trade, and confined his attention solely to publishing. He built a house at Wimbledon in 1852; in 1861 he was made a county magistrate. He finally settled in 1862 at Pembridge Square, Bayswater. For many years he was a great invalid; in July 1875 he went to Tunbridge Wells, where he died on 3 Aug. He was buried in Brompton cemetery. The publishing business is carried on by his two sons, John and Augustus Churchill, to whom he had resigned it on his retirement in 1870.

[Bookseller, September 1875, p. 782; Medical Times and Gazette, 14 Aug. 1875, pp. 197-200.]

G. C. B.

CHURCHILL, JOHN WINSTON SPENCER, seventh Duke of Marlborough (1822–1883), politician, was the eldest son of George Spencer Churchill, sixth duke of Marlborough, who died in 1857, by his first wife, Lady Jane Stewart, daughter of George, eighth earl of Galloway. He was born at Garboldisham Hall, Norfolk, 2 June 1822. He was educated at Eton in 1835–8, and at Oriel College, Oxford. He commenced his public career as a lieutenant in the 1st Oxfordshire yeomanry in 1843, and took his seat in the House of Commons as conservative member for Woodstock on 22 April 1844 (being then known as Marquis of Blandford), but in consequence of having supported free trade measures without the concurrence of his father, whose influence at Woodstock was paramount, he was obliged to accept the stewardship of the Chiltern Hun-