Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 11.djvu/38

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Ermoldus Nigellus (Carm. iv. 403,404; ib. 69), describes Clement as active in the festivities at Ingelheim on the occasion of the baptism of the Danish king Harald in 826 (compare Simson, Jahrbücher des frankischen Reichs unter Ludwig dem Frommen, i. 260, 261 , 1874). The year of Clement's death is not known, but the day is given as 29 March ('Clementis presbiteri magistri palatini') in a necrology preserved in a Würzburg manuscript of the ninth century (printed by Dümmler in the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, vi. 116, 1866), whence it has been conjectured that he died at Würzburg (Simson, op. cit. ii. 259, 1876). His high character is celebrated in a poem by one Prudens, otherwise unknown, who ranks him first among the teachers in the palace school (Poet Lat. ævi Carol, i. 581).

Two grammatical works exist in manuscript bearing Clement's name; one is an 'Ars Grammatica' (also described as 'De Partibus Orationis'), the other, which is possibly only apart of the same, 'De Barbarismo' (H. Keil, Grammatici Latini, i. præf. pp. xx, xxi). Specimens have been printed by Sinner (Cat. Codd. MSS. Biblioth. Bern. i. 344-6, 1760), Hauréau (l.c. pp. 23, 24), and H. Hagen (Anecdota Helvetica — supplement to Keil — præf. xxxii-xxxiv, 1870). Clement's bibliography has, however, been largely extended by a twofold confusion; he has been identified first with the opponent of St. Boniface [see preceding article], and secondly with Claudius, bishop of Turin, who died about 839, and who has long been proved to have been not an Irishman but a Spaniard (see Mabillon, Annates Ord. S. Bened. xxviii. 33, vol. ii. 418, 419). In consequence of this confusion the two Clements and Claudius have been freauently called indifferently 'Clemens Claudius' or 'Claudius Clemens' (compare the notices of Lilius Gregorius Gyraldus, Opera, ii. 222, 1580; Bale, Scriptt. Brit. Cat xiv. 32, pt. ii. 203; Miræus, Biblioth. ecclesiast ccxlii, p. 228, 1639; Labbé, De scriptt. ecclesiast. i. 228, 1660; Du Boulay, l.c.; Tanner, Bibl. Brit. p. 184; Fabricius, Bibl. Lat med. et infim. Æt. i. 357, 358, ed. 1858 — which are all pervaded by this mistake in one form or another). The distinction between the three men is carefully examined by Nicolaus Antonius, 'Bibliotheca Hispana vetus,' i. 469-61 (Madrid, 1788), though this writer persists in calling both those surnamed Scotus by the double name of 'Clemens Claudius.'

[Sec especially Simson's Jahrbücher, as above, ii. 257-9.]

R. L. P.

CLEMENT, CÆSAR, D.D. (d. 1626), catholic divine, born in the diocese of London, was great-nephew to Dr. John Clement [q. v.], president of the College of Physicians, and nephew to Margaret Clement, prioress of St. Ursula's convent at Louvain. When very young, he was sent to the English college of Douay, with which he removed to Rheims, and he completed his theological studies in the English college at Rome, where he was ordained priest in 1586. He was created D.D. in some Italian university, was appointed dean of St. Gudule's in Brussels, and vicar-general of the king of Spain's army in Flanders, and in 1612 was associated with Robert Chambers (1571-1624?) [q. v.] in the visitation of Douay college. He had great influence among the English catholics, and took a leading part in procuring an establishment for the English canonesses at Louvain. His death took place at Brussels on 28 Aug. 1626. A great many of his original letters were formerly in the possession of Dodd, the church historian.

[Dodd's Church Hist. ii. 388; Foley's Records, vi. 117, 138, 190, 507; Morris's Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers, 1st series, 40, 41, 47, 57, 281, 283, 284; Husenbeth's English Colleges and Convents on the Continent, 53; Gillow's Bibl. Dict, i. 496.]

T. C.

CLEMENT, GREGORY (d. 1660), regicide, is described by Ludlow as 'a citizen and merchant of London, who by trading to Spain had raised a very considerable estate' (Memoirs, p. 370). In the spring of 1647 he became member for Camelford, and, according to 'The Mystery of the Good Old Cause, when he had been a member two months protested he had scarcely cleared the purchase money, which was but 60l, but said trading, he doubted not, would mend' (reprint, p. 14). He was one of the members who subscribed their dissent to the vote of 5 Dec. 1648 for an accommodation with the king, and doubtless owed to that circumstance his appointment as one of the king's judges (Parliamentary History, xviii. 482). He attended the high court of justice all the days on which it met in Westminster Hall, and in the Painted Chamber on 8, 22, 23, and 29 Jan., and signed the death-warrant (Nalson, Trial of Charles I). On 11 May 1652 he was expelled from parliament for his 'scandalous carriage;' according to the Rev. Mark Noble, 'not managing his intrigues with secrecy, he was proved to have been frail with his female servant at Greenwich' (Noble, Regicides, p. 143; Heath, p. 476). At the Restoration he went into hiding, but was found concealed 'in a mean house near Gray's Inn,' identified by his voice, 'which was very remarkable,' and sent to the Tower