Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 11.djvu/70

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Clifford
Clifford
64

February 1562. He was in 1569 strongly opposed to the contemplated marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Duke of Norfolk, and readily promised support to the great rebellion of that year. In May 1569 he was in London. As the year wore on he gave in his adherence to the scheme for proclaiming Mary queen of England; but when the critical moment arrived he did not act with vigour, but as a 'crazed man, leaving his tenants to the leadership of Leonard Dacres' (Froude, vii. 469, ix. 412, 446, 449, 511). According to Dugdale, he even assisted Lord Scrope in fortifying Carlisle against the rebels (i. 345). He died shortly after 8 Jan. 1569-70, at Brougham Castle, and was buried at Skipton (ib.), where his skeleton was seen by Whitaker in March 1803. It is described as being that 'of a very tall and slender man.' 'Something of the face might still be distinguished, and a long prominent nose was very conspicuous' (pp. 430-1).

The second Earl of Cumberland is described by his daughter as having 'a good library,' being 'studious in all manner of learning, and much given to alchemy.' His first wife was Eleanor Brandon, mentioned above (d. November 1547); his second Anne (d. July 1581), daughter of William, third lord Dacre of Gillesland. By his first wife he had a daughter, Margaret (b. 1540), who on 7 Feb. 1555 married Henry Stanley, afterwards fourth Earl of Derby. This Margaret in 1557 was looked upon as the legal heir to the English crown by many Englishmen (Cal. of State Papers, Venetian, ed.Rawdon Brown, p.1707). By his second wife he had two sons, George [q. v.] and Francis, respectively third and fourth earls of Cumberland, and a daughter, Frances (1556-1592), who married Philip, lord Wharton. Dugdale mentions two other daughters, Eleanor and Mary, by his second wife, and two other sons, Henry and Charles, by his first, all of whom died young Whitaker, 343, &c.; Dugdale, i. 345).

[For general authorities see Henry de Clifford (1493-1542); Froude, ed. 1863. For his various offices see Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 491-2.]

T. A. A.

CLIFFORD, HENRY, fifth Earl of Cumberland (1591–1643), nephew of George Clifford, third earl [q. v.], and only son of Francis, fourth earl, by Grisold, daughter of Thomas Hughes of Uxbridge, and widow of Edward Nevill, lord Bergavenny, was born on 28 Feb. 1591 at Londesborough (Dugdale, i. 345). He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, on 30 Jan. 1606, and took the degree of B.A. on 16 Feb. 1608 (Bliss). He was created knight of the Bath on 3 June 1610, and on 25 July in the same year married Lady Frances Cecil, daughter of Robert, earl of Salisbury (Court and Times of James I, i. 125, 131, 138). In the following year Clifford's sister Margaret married Sir Thomas Wentworth, and though she died in 1622, the friendship of Clifford and Wentworth which thus originated proved lasting. When Wentworth refused to pay the forced loan of 1627, Clifford used all his influence to persuade him to submission ('Strafford Papers, i. 36-8). He took part in the quarrel with Savile, who was fined 100l. in 1630 for a libel against him (Rushworth, ii. App. 21). Wentworth's influence arranged the match between Clifford's only daughter, Elizabeth, and Richard Boyle, earl of Dungarvan, which took place on 5 July 1634 (Lismore Papers, iii. 220; Strafford Papers, i. 112-262). It was also owing to Wentworth's representation of the great and pressing necessities of the Clifford family that the king consented to repay in 1637 a quarter of the debt to them which his father had contracted twenty years earlier (Carte, Ormonde, v. 227). Clifford was appointed a member of the council of the north on 10 July 1619, was summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Clifford on 17 Feb. 1628, and from 14 March 1636 to 31 Aug. 1639 was joint lord-lieutenant of the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland. Charged, at the approach of the Scotch war, with the duty of raising troops in his lieutenancy, he wrote to the king assuring him that 'the same loyal blood of my ancestors runs still in my veins which they were never sparing of when their sovereigns commanded them to fight for them' (Strafford Papers, ii. 214). But though his zeal was great his military knowledge was little, and Strafford, when recommending the king to make him governor of Carlisle on account of his local influence and loyalty, could only say that, 'provided he be furnished with an able lieutenant-governor and set into a right posture at first, he would after govern himself, I believe, dexterously enough' (ib. ii. 208, 234). In April 1639, having obtained a commission as lieutenant-general from the Earl of Essex, he occupied Carlisle with some local levies, and was reinforced by five hundred of Strafford's Irish army and an experienced commander, Sir Francis Willoughby, to act as his counsellor (ib. ii. 317). Three months later the command of Carlisle was taken from him and given to Lord William Howard, but he was nevertheless active for the king's cause in the second Scotch war (ib. ii. 365; Hardwick Papers, ii. 152). The popular party seems to have had some hope of gaming his support, for he was

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