Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 11.djvu/78

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Clifford
Clifford
72

Lancaster, Hereford, and Warwick, however, refused to confirm his arrangements on technical grounds; on 16 Oct. 1313 a pardon was granted him for his share in the murder of Gaveston (ib. 221, 443, 688, &c.)

On 23 Dec. 1313 Clifford was summoned to join the muster at Berwick for the Scots expedition of June 1314. When about the beginning of Lent (c. 20 Feb.) 1314 came the news of the distress of the Stirling garrison, Clifford was one of the few great lords on whose loyalty Edward felt that he could rely. He was hurriedly excused from attendance at the parliament summoned for 21 April, and bidden to muster his men at Berwick by the same date (Parl. Writs, 688; Chron. Ed. II, 201). On the eve of Bannockburn, Clifford commanded the eight hundred chosen warriors sent to attempt the relief of Stirling. The account of his defeat in this effort by a small force of Scotch under Thomas Randolph, earl of Moray, is one of the most picturesque incidents in the siege of Stirling. Next day (24 June 1314) he was slain in the great battle: 'turpiter in fugam convertitur' is the phrase of one chronicler. Bruce, with characteristic generosity, sent back his dead body, like that of the Earl of Gloucester, to the English king (Barbour, xi. 513-655, xii. 29, 99-164; Chron. Ed. I and II, ii. 202; Trokelowe, 85, 87).

Clifford married (13 Nov. 1295) Matilda or Maud (d. 1327, Escheat Rolls, ii. 4), daughter and coheiress of Thomas de Clare, brother of Gilbert de Clare, last earl of Gloucester but one. This Maud, his executrix, after having had his will proved on 18 Sept. 1314, was seized and carried off while on a journey by James Iseys, guardian of Castle Bernard, c. 11 Nov. 1315, and is said to have afterwards married Robert de Welles, a baron of Lincolnshire (Ann. Wigorn. 523; Chron. Ed. I and II, 48; Reg. Pal. Dun. iv. 607; Dugdale, 339). Clifford was succeeded by his eldest son Roger, born on 2 Feb. 1299 (Whitaker, 311, &c.), who, after joining the insurgent barons in 1321-2, is variously reported to have been executed at York (23 March 1322) immediately after the battle of Boroughbridge, and to have survived till the commencement of Edward III's reign (Reg. Pal. Dun. iv. 1051; Chron. Ed. I and II, i. 302, ii. 77-8, with which cf. Whitaker, 348; Dugdale, 339; Escheat Rolls, ii. 5). A second son, Robert de Clifford, held the estates fromabout 1327, if not earlier, to about 1344 (Reg. Pal. Dun. iv. 182; Escheat Rolls, v. 118).

Clifford was one of the greatest barons of the age. In addition to the estates of his grandfather, he inherited from his mother, Isabella de Vipont (d. 1291), a moiety of the barony of Westmoreland. He thus became possessed of Brougham, Burgh, Pendragon, and perhaps Appleby castles (for a full list of his manors see Dugdale, pp. 339-340). By agreement with his aunt Idonea he is said to have enjoyed all the Vipont estates in Westmoreland during his life; but it was not till after her death that his son Robert united all the inheritance of this family (Hist. of Westmoreland, 274, &c.; Dugdale, 339).

Clifford was one of Edward I's most vigorous soldiers and administrators. Rishanger describes him as 'miles illustris.' The author of the 'Siege of Carlaverock' is more emphatic in his praise. Clifford's valour at this siege and his long services for Edward I and II seem to justify the eulogy. He was the founder of the north-country branch of the Clifford family (Rishanger, pp. 97, 185; Siege of Carlaverock (text), pp. 27, 28,76,86).

[Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i.; Whitaker's History of Craven, ed. Morant, 1877; Nicolas's Historic Peerage, ed. Courthope; Siege of Carlaverock, ed. Nicolas; Nicolson and Burn's History of Westmoreland; Parliamentary Writs, vols. i. and ii. div. iii.; Calendarium Genealogicum, ed. Roberts; Kalendar of Exchequer, &c. ed. Palgrave; Escheat Rolls, vols. i. ii.; Rotuli Parliament, vol. i.; Tres Scriptores Historiæ Dunelm. ed. Raine (Surtees Society); Rymer's Fœdera, ed. 1704, vol. ii.; Barbour's Bruce, ed. Skeat (Surtees Society); Knyghton ap. Twysden's Decem Scriptores. The following volumes are quoted from the Rolls Series: Annales Wigorn., Winton., Dunstapl. ap. Annales Monastici, ed. Luard; Chronicles of Edward I and II, ed. Stubbs; Rishanger, ed. Riley; Registrum Palatin. Dunelm., ed. Hardy.]

T. A. A.


CLIFFORD, ROGER de (d. 1285?), soldier and judge, was the son of Roger de Clifford of Tenbury, second son of Walter de Clifford, brother of Fair Rosamond, by Sybil, daughter of Robert de Ewyas, and relict first of Robert, lord Tregoz, and then of William de Newmarch. He was a minor at the date of his father's death (1231 ?). In 1259 he was among the suite of Henry III in France during the negotiations for the treaty of peace which was concluded in that year with Louis IX. Three years later suspicions of his loyalty were aroused by a letter which, as representing the marcher barons, he sent to the king urging upon him the observance of the provisions of Oxford, and he was forbidden to joust or appear in arms, particularly during the king's absence overseas, without a royal license. The effect of