Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 15.djvu/260

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DOUBLEDAY, EDWARD (1811–1849), entomologist, brother of Henry Doubleday [q. v.], born at Epping, was the son of Benjamin Doubleday, a thriving grocer. When just of age he published his first paper, ‘Stygia, not a New Holland Genus,’ in the ‘Magazine of Natural History’ for 1832; and in 1833 he wrote, with E. Newman, an account of an ‘Entomological Excursion in North Wales’ for the ‘Entomological Magazine.’

In 1835 Doubleday visited the United States, accompanied by Mr. Foster, another member of the Society of Friends, with the sole object of studying the natural history of that country. After a stay of nearly two years he returned with immense collections, chiefly of insects, which he distributed to the British and other museums. Concerning this trip Doubleday wrote three papers, ‘The Natural History of North America’ (‘Entom. Mag.’ 1838); ‘Lepidoptera of North America, being the result of Nineteen Months' Travel’ (‘Mag. Nat. Hist.’ 1840); and ‘On the Occurrence of Alligators in Florida’ (‘Zoologist,’ 1843). Of the twenty-nine papers by Doubleday which are given in the ‘Catalogue of Scientific Papers’ published by the Royal Society, this ‘alligator’ paper is the only one not upon an entomological subject. Doubleday tried hard to secure an appointment as naturalist to the ill-fated Niger expedition in 1839. Fortunately disappointed in this he accepted a post as assistant in the British Museum in the same year. Here he had special charge of the collections of butterflies and moths, and he worked with such diligence that his department became one of the most complete in existence. It was at this time that Doubleday contributed an important series of papers on ‘New Diurnal Lepidoptera’ to the ‘Annals of Natural History,’ 1845–8. He also wrote a small book, published by Van Voorst in 1839, on the ‘Nomenclature of British Birds.’

Doubleday died at his house in Harrington Square, Hampstead Road, London, on 14 Dec. 1849. He was engaged on a ‘Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera,’ and on a magnificent work, ‘The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera,’ with coloured illustrations by Hewitson, the issue of which was commenced in 1846 and completed in 1852. It was published by Longman at fifteen guineas per copy. At the time of Doubledy's death he was secretary of the Entomological Society. There is a good portrait of him in the possession of this society, painted by E. D. Maguire, and a lithograph was also published by G. H. Ford after a daguerreotype by J. W. Gutch.

[Gent. Mag. 1850, pt. i. p. 213; Entomological Society's Proceedings, 1850, new ser. i. 1.]

W. J. H.

DOUBLEDAY, HENRY (1808–1875), naturalist, was born on 1 July 1808, at Epping, Essex, where his father, Benjamin Doubleday, had long been one of the principal tradesmen. Henry was the elder and only brother of Edward Doubleday [q. v.] Both in after life became distinguished as naturalists. Their keen interest in nature was probably aroused by the proximity of Epping and Hainault forests. Before 1848, when his father died, and the entire management of the business at Epping devolved upon him, he made many collecting expeditions, chiefly confined to the eastern counties. Between 1846 and 1873 he only twice slept away from his own house. A brief visit to Paris in 1843 was the only occasion on which he ever left England. His first contribution to science was probably a note on the habits of the hawfinch (Jardine, Mag. of Zoology, i. 448) in 1837. His first entomological note appeared in 1841 (Entomologist, i. 102). It described his success in capturing moths at sallow-blossoms, then an entirely novel proceeding. In 1842 (ib. i. 407; Zoologist, i. 201) he introduced the now very familiar plan of ‘sugaring’ for moths. During the remainder of his life he continued frequently to contribute observations on the habits of mammals, birds, and insects to the various scientific magazines of the day. The ‘Entomologist’ and the ‘Zoologist,’ both conducted by his intimate friend Edward Newman [q. v.], received most of these. Others are to be found in the ‘Proceedings of the Entomological Society of London,’ of which he was an original (1833) and lifelong member. Many notes, too, supplied by him, were made use of by Yarrell in his standard ‘History of British Birds’ (1837–43). Doubleday's short visit to Paris in 1843 led him to undertake the chief work of his life. While there he observed that the system of nomenclature in use among continental entomologists was wholly different from that employed by those in this country. His attention had, it seems, in the previous year been directed to the subject of nomenclature, as a ‘List of the British Noctuæ’ by him appeared in the ‘Entomologist’ (i. 377) in 1842. On his return, therefore, he set himself diligently to work to compare the two, with a view of ultimately producing uniformity. The execution of this task necessitated a vast amount of patient study and research, and it was not finally