Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 15.djvu/307

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Naval Architects arrived the day of his death. He received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford 1 July 1829 in recognition of his patriotic conduct in New Brunswick, and his services to education in founding the Fredericton College, which was endowed by royal charter with the privileges of a university on the model of Oxford, and of which he was the first chancellor. He was made C.B. in 1815, K.C.B. in 1840, and G.C.B., civil division, in 1841. Shortly before his death Palmerston offered Douglas the military G.C.B., but he declined, saying he was too old. He was made G.C.M.G. in 1835 on appointment to the government of the Ionian Islands, and had the grand cordon of Charles III of Spain, and the Peninsular medal with clasp for Corunna. He was many years a commissioner of the Royal Military College; was a patron of the Royal United Service Institution and of the Wellington College, in which he took a lively interest; and was president of the Royal Cambridge Asylum. For many years he held the post of gentleman of the bedchamber to the late Duke of Gloucester.

The following is a list of Douglas's published works, of which it has been truly remarked (Quart. Rev. 1866, cxx. 509) that although little read when they first appeared, they have been accepted in the end, not in England only, but all over the world, as works of authority on the subjects of which they severally treat: 1. ‘Essay on the Principle and Construction of Military Bridges and the Passage of Rivers in Military Operations,’ 1st edition, London, 1816; 2nd edition, London, 1832; 3rd edition, enlarged, London, 1853, 8vo. 2. ‘Observations on the Motives, Errors, and Tendency of M. Carnot's System of Defence, showing the Defects of his New System of Fortifications, and the alterations he has proposed with a view to improve the defences of existing places,’ London, 1819, 8vo. 3. ‘Treatise on Naval Gunnery,’ 1st edition, London, 1820, 300 pp. 8vo; 2nd edition, London, 1829; 3rd edition, London, 1851; 4th edition, London, 1855; 5th edition, London, 1860, over 660 pp. 8vo. The work has been reprinted in America, and French and Spanish editions appeared in 1853 and 1857 respectively, copies of which are in the British Museum Library. 4. ‘Observations on the Proposed Alterations of the Timber Duties,’ London, 1831, 8vo. 5. ‘Considerations on the Value and Importance of the British North American Provinces and the circumstances on which depend their Prosperity and Connection with Great Britain,’ 1st edition, London, 1831, 8vo; 2nd edition, same year and place. 6. ‘Naval Evolutions; containing a review and refutation of the principal essays and arguments advocating Mr. Clark's claims in relation to the action of 12 April 1782’ (action between the British and French fleets under Rodney and De Grasse), London, 1832, 8vo. 7. ‘Speech of Sir Howard Douglas … on Lord Ingestre's Motion for an Address to the Crown to order another Commission for the investigation of Mr. Warner's alleged discoveries,’ London, 1845. 8. ‘Observations on the Naval Operations in the Black Sea and at Sebastopol,’ London, 1855, 8vo. 9. ‘On Naval Warfare under Steam,’ 1st edition, London, 1858; 2nd edition, London, 1860, 8vo. 10. ‘Observations on the Modern System of Fortification, including the proposals of M. Carnot, to which are added some reflections on entrenched positions, and a treatise on the naval, littoral, and internal defence of England,’ London, 1859, 8vo. 11. ‘The Defence of England,’ London, 1860, 8vo. 12. ‘Postscript to Remarks on Iron Defences in the 5th edition of Naval Gunnery, in answer to the “Quarterly Review,”’ 1st edition, London, 1860; 2nd edition, London, 1861, 8vo.

[For genealogy see Burke's Baronetage. Foster's Baronetage contains numerous errors. For Douglas's services see Philippart's Roy. Mil. Cal. 1820, and Hart's Army List. In Colonel F. Duncan's Hist. Royal Artillery his name appears only once. A Life of Sir Howard Douglas (London, 1862, 8vo) was written by the late Stephen Watson Fullom, who was at one time his private secretary. It gives much interesting information, derived from family sources and from Douglas's old brother-officers, especially concerning his services in America in 1795–9, in Spain in 1811–12, in New Brunswick and the Ionian Islands, and of the last few years of his life, but it contains numerous errors in names and dates. A good biographical notice appeared in Gent. Mag. 3rd ser. xii. 90–2. Douglas's speeches in parliament will be found in the volumes of Parl. Debates for 1842–7. Further details must be sought in the several editions of his works and in his evidence before various parliamentary committees on questions relating to naval and military science and military education.]

H. M. C.

DOUGLAS, Sir JAMES, of Douglas, ‘the Good,’ Lord of Douglas (1286?–1330), was the eldest son of Sir William Douglas of Douglas, ‘the Hardy’ [q. v.], by his first wife, Elizabeth Stewart; for Barbour calls James, high steward of Scotland, his eme or uncle. He was probably born about 1286. When his father was seized and imprisoned by Edward I, he was sent to France, whence, after a three years' sojourn in Paris, he returned to find his father dead and himself stripped of his inheritance, which had been given by Edward to Sir Robert Clifford. He was