Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 20.djvu/384

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

1669, 4to; 2nd edit. Oxford, 1672, 4to; pt. ii. Oxford, 1671, 4to; 2nd edit. London, 1676, 4to; pts. iii. and iv. London, 1677, 4to (bk. iii. of pt. iv. London, 1678, 4to); 2nd edit. London, 1682, 4to.
  1. ‘A True Idea of Jansenisme,’ &c., 1669, 8vo (preface by John Owen, D.D.).
  2. ‘The Life and Death of Mr. Thomas Tregosse,’ &c., 1671, 8vo (who was ‘converted’ by one of his own sermons).
  3. ‘Theophilie … the Saints Amitie with God,’ &c., 1671, 8vo.
  4. ‘The Anatomie of Infidelitie,’ &c., 1672, 8vo.
  5. ‘Idea Theologiæ,’ &c., 1673, 8vo.
  6. ‘A Discourse of Christ's coming,’ &c., 1673, 8vo.
  7. ‘Philosophia Generalis,’ &c., 1676, 8vo.

Also a sermon (1 John ii. 15), 1674, 8vo (reprinted in supplement to ‘Morning Exercise at Cripplegate,’ 1676, 4to); a preface to the ‘Life of Rowe,’ 1673, 12mo; and a summary prefixed to William Strong's ‘Discourse of the Two Covenants,’ 1678, fol. Wood (followed by Watt) assigns to him ‘Ars Sciendi,’ &c., 1681, 12mo; 1682, 8vo, by T. G., but this is the work of Thomas Gowan [q. v.]

[Wood's Athenæ Oxon., 1692, ii. 451, 750, 778; Reynolds's Funeral Sermon for Ashwood, 1706; Calamy's Account, 1713, p. 64 sq.; Continuation, 1727, i. 97 sq.; Palmer's Nonconformist's Memorial, 1802, i. 239; Wilson's Dissenting Churches in London, 1810, iii. 161 sq.; Wilson's manuscripts in Dr. Williams's Library (Dissenting Records, D*, p. 69); Gale's works.]

A. G.

GALE, THOMAS (1507–1587), surgeon, was born in London in 1507, and was apprenticed with John Field, also a well-known surgeon, to Richard Ferris, one of the chief barber-surgeons of the time. After practicing for some time in London, he served in the army of Henry VIII at Muttrell in France in 1544 (Treatise of Gunshot, p. 74 b), and there had the good sense to refuse to imperil the lives of eleven soldiers by removing bullets the lodgments of which were uncertain. In 1557 he served under Philip II of Spain at the siege of St. Quentin, and two years later was established in practice in London Institution, p. 8 b). He was master of the Barber-Surgeons' Company in 1561, and published a volume on surgery in 1563, dedicated to Lord Robert Dudley. It contains four separate treatises. 'The Institution of Chirurgerie,' the first, is a sort of catechism of surgery, in which Gale and his friend Field answer the questions of a surgical student named John Yates. The second is 'The Enchiridion of Surgery,' a compilation on general surgery, which contains the prescription for Gale's styptic powder often mentioned in contemporary works. Its chief ingredients were alum, turpentine, arsenic, and quicklime. The third is a treatise on gunshot wounds, in which he shows that gunpowder is not a poison, and the fourth is an antidotary or collection of prescriptions. A second volume appeared in 1566 containing some translations from Latin versions of Galen, 'A brief Declaration of the Worthy Art of Medicine,' and 'The Office of a Chirirgeon.' Gale knew but little Latin, and the translations are the work of his friend Dr. Cuningham. The writings of Gale are mainly compilations and contain few cases from his own practice. They show him to have had less mother wit than his contemporary William Clowes the elder [q. v.], and less reading than John Banister (1540-1610) [q. v.] He died in 1587, and left a son, Thomas, also a surgeon, admitted to the guild 18 Jan. 1597.

[Works; MS. Transcript of Records at Barbers' Hall by Sidney Young.]

N. M.

GALE, THOMAS (1635?–1702), dean of York, born at Scruton in the North Riding of Yorkshire in 1635 or 1636, was the only surviving child of Christopher Gale of Scruton, by his wife Frances Conyers of Holtby in the same county (Foster, Yorkshire Pedigrees vol. ii.) He was educated at Westminster School, under Busby, and being admitted king's scholar was elected in 1655 to Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A. 1659, M.A. 1662). He contributed verses to the 'Luctus et Gratulatio,' published by the university of Cambridge in 1658, on the death of Oliver Cromwell; to the 'Threni Cantabrigienses' on the deaths of the Duke of Gloucester and the Princess of Orange in 1661, and to the 'Epicedia Cantabrigiensis' in 1671. He became a fellow of his college, and was incorporated M.A. at Oxford the day after the opening of the Sheldonian Theatre, 13 July 1669 (Wood, Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 312). He was appointed senior taxor in 1670. His eminence as a scholar obtained for him in 1666 the regius professorship of Greek at Cambridge, an office which he resigned in 1672 to become high master of St Paul's School. On that occasion James Duport [q. v.] addressed to him a copy of verses which are printed at page 16 of the 'Musæ Subsecivæ,' 1676. He accumulated the degrees in divinity in 1675, and on 7 June 1676 was made prebendary of St Paul's. On 6 Dec 1677 he was elected into the Royal Society (Thomson Hist. Roy. Soc. App. iv. p. xxvii), of which he became a very active member. He frequently sat on the council, and presented many curiosities to the museum. In 1679 he wrote at the request of the society the inscription for the Bibliotheca Norfolciana. In January 1685-6 Gale and Sir