Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 20.djvu/386

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tinuing Archbishop Parker's 'Antiquitates Britannicæ.' Gale, by the king's command, composed the obnoxious inscription for the monument of London, for which he received a testimonial from the city in the shape of a present of plate.

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. iv. 536-55; Welch's Alumni Westmon. (1852) pp. 143, 144; Biographia Britannica; Chalmers's Biog. Dict. xv. 221-5; Cole MSS. vol. xlv. ff. 242, 268, 462; Knight's Life of Colet, p. 282; Willis's Survey of Cathedrals, i. 70-2; Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 144; Evelyn's Diary; Noble's Continuation of Granger's Biog. Hist. i. 94-5; Evans's Cat. of Engraved Portraits, i. 132; Nicholson's Historical Libraries (1776), pts. i. and ii.; Stukeley's Diaries and Letters (Surtees Soc.); Hearne's Preface to Walterus de Hemingford, p. xxiii; Le Neve's Fasti (Hardy), iii. 639.]

G. G.

GALEON, WILLIAM (d. 1507), learned Augustinian, was born in Norfolk, and became a friar eremite in the Augustinian monastery of Lynn Regis. Bale says that he was already of 'mature years' when he went to Oxford, where he studied for several years among the brethren of his order in their college. He was chiefly renowned for his minute knowledge of theology, and took a D.D. degree probably before he left the university. He was much esteemed by his contemporaries, and ' having moved through several honourable stations, was chosen provincial of his order in England. He died at Lynn in 1507 in the prime of life, and was buried in the church of his order there. Galeon was looked upon as a great ornament to his society, which he is said to have roused from slothfulness. Bale says that he gave many of his writings in his lifetime to his own religious house at Lynn. Bishop Pamphilus is incorrect in his statement that Galeon died in 1500, aged 90. The works ascribed to him are: 'Lectiones in Theologia,' 'Disputationes Variæ' Conciones per Annum.'

[Bale, viii. iii. 60; Pits, p. 687; Lansdowne MS. 978, f. 80; Wood's Athenæ Oxon. ed. Bliss, i. 11; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 304; Stevens's Hist. of Abbeys and Monasteries, ii. 220; Dodd's Church History, i. 238.]

E. T. B.

GALFRIDUS. [See Geoffrey.]

GALGACUS, or (according to the best readings) CALGACUS (fl. circa A.D. 84), Caledonian chieftain, held the command of the native tribes when Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, invaded Caledonia in his last campaign. Agricola found him encamped near Mons Graupius (Tacitus, Agric. xxix.; so in the editions of Wex, Kritz, and Orelli, 2nd edit.; Church and Brodribb read 'Grampius;' Skene, Celt. Scotl. i. 52, 'Granpius'), and a great battle ensued in which the Romans were victorious. The scene of this engagement has been variously identified with Dealgan Ross near Comrie, Ardoch, Fife, and Urie in Kincardineshire. Skene (Celt. Scotl. i. 54) supposes that previous to the battle the Romans occupied the peninsula formed by the junction of the Isla with the Tay, being protected by the rampart of the Cleaven Dyke, and that Galgacus was encamped at Buzzard Dykes. The date of the battle is usually given as A.D. 84. (Skene, 'A.D. 86;' on the chronological difficulty, see Celt. Scotl. i. 51 note; Merivale, Hist. of the Romans, vii. 329). Before the fight Galgacus is represented by Tacitus (Agric. xxx-xxxii.) as delivering an harangue, denouncing the Roman plunderers of the world. ('Raptores orbis . . . ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant,' &c.) His personal fortunes in the battle are not stated, nor is his name subsequently mentioned. Tacitus speaks of him as 'inter plures duces virtute et genere præstans.'

[Tacitus, Agricola, xxix-xxxii. &c.; Skene's Celtic Scotland, i. 52-6.]

W. W.

GALIGNANI, JOHN ANTHONY (1796–1873), and WILLIAM (1798–1882), publishers of Paris, were the sons of Giovanni Antonio Galignani (1757–1821), by Anne Parsons (1776–1822). The name is probably derived from the village of Gallignano, near Cremona, and Giovanni was a native of Brescia. There is a tradition that the father was originally a courier. In 1793 he taught Italian, German, and English at Paris. He thence removed to London, where in 1796he published twenty-four lectures on a new method of learning Italian without grammar or dictionary. A second edition of this work was issued by Montucci in 1806. Galignani apparently married in London, and his two sons were born there, the elder on 13 Oct. 1796, the younger on 10 March 1798. Shortly after William's birth he returned to Paris, where he and his wife offered linguistic breakfasts and teas to persons desirous of mastering English or Italian, but for the latter language there appears to have been little demand, and 'Mrs. Parsons-Galignani' established an English bookshop and circulating-library. In 1801 the Galignanis started a monthly (in 1817 it became a weekly) 'Repertory of English Literature.' A third son, Charles Alphonse, was born at Paris in 1811; he died at Geneva in 1829. On the fall of Napoleon in 1814 the father commenced issuing guide-books and founded 'Galignani's Messenger,' which was at first a tri-weekly