Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 21.djvu/17

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natory questions, was incarcerated in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh. Here he remained, refusing all overtures for compliance, until 7 Oct. 1681, when he was tried before the privy council, and for declining the king's authority was found guilty of treason, and condemned to be executed along with some of his fellows on the 10th of the same month. The sentence was carried out at the Gallowlee, between Edinburgh and Leith, his head and hands being cut off and placed on spikes at the Pleasance port of the town. The bodies of Garnock and his fellow-sufferers were buried at the foot of the gibbet, but during the night they were removed by James Renwick and some friends, and reinterred in the West Church burying-ground of Edinburgh. They also took down the heads of Garnock and the others, in order to place them beside their bodies. But, the day dawning before this could be accomplished, they were compelled to bury them in the garden of a favourer of their cause, named Tweedie, in Lauriston, where in 1728 they were accidentally discovered and interred with much honour in Greyfriars churchyard, near the Martyrs' Tomb. When in prison Garnock wrote an account of his life, from the manuscript of which Mr. John Howie, in his ‘Biographia Scoticana, or Scots Worthies,’ gives several extracts. His dying testimony is printed at length in the ‘Cloud of Witnesses’ (pp. 150–6).

[Howie's Biographia Scoticana, ed. 1816, pp. 364–81; Wodrow's Hist. of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland, ed. Burns, iii. 130–76, 285–7.]

H. P.

GARRARD, GEORGE (1760–1826), animal painter and sculptor, was born on 31 May 1760. He became a pupil of Sawrey Gilpin, R.A. [q. v.], and in 1778 a student of the Royal Academy, where in 1781 he first exhibited some pictures of horses and dogs. Three years later he sent with other pictures a ‘View of a Brewhouse Yard,’ which attracted the notice of Sir Joshua Reynolds, who commissioned him to paint a similar picture. In 1793 he exhibited ‘Sheep-shearing at Aston Clinton, Buckinghamshire,’ but early in 1795 it occurred to him that models of cattle might be useful to landscape painters, and from this time he combined painting with modelling. This led him in 1797, with the concurrence of the Royal Academy and some of the leading sculptors of the day, to petition parliament in support of a bill for securing copyright in works of plastic art, and in 1798 he was successful in obtaining the passing of ‘An Act for encouraging the Art of making new Models and Casts of Busts, and other Things therein mentioned’ (38 Geo. III. c. 71). In 1800 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy, and in the same year he published a folio volume with coloured plates, entitled ‘A Description of the different varieties of Oxen common in the British Isles, embellished with engravings; being an accompaniment to a set of models of the improved breeds of Cattle, executed by George Garrard, upon an exact scale from nature, under the patronage of the Board of Agriculture.’ In 1802 he exhibited ‘A Peasant attacked by Wolves in the Snow,’ but after 1804 he appears to have restricted himself almost entirely to sculpture and modelling. He painted both in oil and water colours, and contributed also to the annual exhibitions of the Royal Academy busts, medallions, bas-reliefs, and groups of animals, such as ‘Fighting Bulls’ and ‘An Elk pursued by Wolves,’ sometimes in marble or bronze, but more often in plaster. He exhibited in all 215 works at the Royal Academy, besides a few others at the British Institution and the Society of British Artists. There is at Woburn Abbey a large picture by him representing ‘Woburn Sheep-shearing in 1804,’ and containing eighty-eight portraits of agricultural celebrities. It has considerable merit, and was engraved in aquatint by the artist himself. Garrard died at Queen's Buildings, Brompton, London, on 8 Oct. 1826.

[Redgrave's Dict. of Artists of the English School, 1878; Sandby's Hist. of the Royal Acad. of Arts, 1862, i. 396; Royal Acad. Exhibition Catalogues, 1781–1826.]

R. E. G.

GARRARD, MARC (1561–1635), painter. [See Gheeraerts.]

GARRARD, Sir SAMUEL (1650–1724), lord mayor of London, second son of Sir John Garrard, bart., and Jane, daughter of Sir Moulton Lambard, and maternal grandson of Dr. Cosin, bishop of Durham, was descended from an old Kentish family originally named Attegare, whose representatives were connected with the city of London for more than two centuries. Two of his ancestors were lord mayors, Sir William Garrard in 1555, and the first baronet, Sir John Garrard, in 1601; and intermarriages took place between the Garrards and the city families of Roe, Gresham, and Barkham. Garrard, who was born in 1650, was a grandson of the first baronet, and carried on business as a merchant first in Watling Street and afterwards in Warwick Court, Newgate Street. By the death, on 13 Jan. 1700, of his brother Sir John Garrard, the third baronet, he became possessed of the title and of the family estate of Lamer in Wheathamstead, Hertfordshire, but con-