Wallace's Antitrin. Biog. 1850, i. 101, 139; Wilson's Diss. Churches of London, 1808 ii. 403 sq., 1814 iv. 136; Granger's Biog. Hist. of Engl. 1824, iii. 332; Underhill's edition of Williams's Bloudy Tenent, 1848, xxxiv.; Maidment's Scottish Ballads, 1868, ii. 274 sq. (reprints the second of Goodwin's 'hyms'); Hunt's Religious Thought in Engl. 1870, i. 253, 259 sq., 356; Masson's Life of Milton, 1871 ii. 582, 1873 iii. 113, 1877 iv. 95, 106, 1880 vi. 174, &c.; Kitton's Catalogus Librorum in Bibliotheca Norvicensi, 1883.]
GOODWIN, PHILIP (d. 1699), divine, a native of Suffolk, was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, and proceeded M.A. During the civil war he sided with the parliament, and was appointed one of the 'triers' for Hertfordshire. By an ordinance of the lords and commons, dated 23 April 1645, he became vicar of Watford in that county, in succession to Dr. Cornelius Burgess (Commons' Journals, iii. 580), but was ejected for nonconformity in June 1661 (Newcourt, Repertorium, i. 960). He afterwards conformed, and on 4 Oct. 1673 was presented to the rectory of Liston, Essex, by William Clopton, whose daughter Lucy he had married (ib. ii. 393). He died in 1699. His will, dated 29 Sept. 1697 (registered in P. C. C. 93, Pett), mentions property at Broome and Aldham in Suffolk. His children were Robert (who succeeded to his father's living), Thomas, Margaret, and Lucy. While resident at Watford he published:
- 'The Evangelicall Communicant in the Eucharisticall Sacrament, or a Treatise declaring who are to receive the Supper of the Lord,' &c., 8vo, London, 1649; second impression enlarged, &c., 8vo, London, 1657.
- 'Dies Dominicus redivivus, or the Lord's Day enlivened, or a treatise … to discover the practical part of the evangelical Sabbath,' &c., 8vo, London, 1654.
- 'Religio domestica rediviva, or family religion revived,' &c., 8vo, London, 1655.
- 'The Mystery of Dreames, historically discoursed; or a treatise wherein is clearly discovered the secret yet certain good or evil … of mens differing dreames; their distinguishing characters,' &c., 8vo, London, 1658.
[Calamy's Nonconf. Memorial (Palmer, 1802-1803), ii. 314.]
GOODWIN, THOMAS, D.D. (1600–1680), independent divine, was born at Rollesby, Norfolk, on 5 Oct. 1600. He entered Christ's College, Cambridge, on 25 Aug. 1613, and graduated B.A. in 1616. He was a hearer of Richard Sibbs, D.D., John Preston, D.D., and other puritans, and had prepared himself to receive the communion, but his tutor sent him back as too young and 'little of his age.' This temporarily alienated him from the puritans. In 1619 he removed to Catherine Hall, and graduated M.A. in 1620. On 16 Nov. 1620 a funeral sermon by Thomas Bainbrigg (d. 1646) [q. v.] renewed his puritan zeal. He was chosen fellow; commenced B.D.; in 1628 was elected lecturer at Trinity Church, Cambridge, in spite of the opposition of John Buckeridge, bishop of Ely; and in 1632 became vicar of Trinity Church. Becoming dissatisfied with the terms of conformity, he conferred in June 1633 with John Cotton, then in London on his way to New England. Cotton made him an independent. He resigned his vicarage in 1634 in favour of Sibbs, and left the university.
Between 1634 and 1639 he was probably a separatist preacher in London. He married there in 1638. In 1639 the vigilance of Laud made his position untenable; he crossed to Holland, and became pastor of the English church at Arnheim. At the beginning of the Long parliament (3 Nov. 1640) he returned to London, and gathered an independent congregation in the parish of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East. In 1643 he was appointed a member of the Westminster Assembly, and took the covenant. He was one of the sub-committee of five nominated on 16 Dec. 1643 to meet the Scottish commissioners, and draw up a directory for worship; his co-operation was not at first very hearty. On 9 Dec. 1644, when Burroughs, Nye, Carter, Simpson, and Bridge (afterwards known as the 'dissenting brethren'), entered their dissent from the propositions on church government adopted by the majority, Goodwin was absent from the assembly through illness, but he added his name next day. Goodwin conceived that the use of synods was 'to frame up the spirits of men to a way of peace.' If the power of excommunication had been withheld from the superior judicatories, he would have been satisfied. Himself a Calvinist he was not prepared to excommunicate Arminian congregations. After 1646 he took little or no part in the proceedings of the assembly. He was invited to New England by Cotton in 1647, and prepared to go, but was dissuaded by his friends. When the 'dissenting brethren' drew up their 'Reasons' in detail (printed 1648), Goodwin was their leader and editor. On 2 Nov. 1649 he was appointed a chaplain to the council of state with 200l. a year, and lodgings in Whitehall. On 8 Jan. 1650 by order of parliament he was made president of Magdalen College, Oxford, with the privilege of nominating fellows and demies in case of vacancy, or of refusal to take the engagement.