Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 23.djvu/91

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published ‘Songs of Salvation’ (1873), ‘The Soul's Legend’ (1873), and ‘Camera Obscura’ (1876), all in verse. Her principal prose works, ‘The Patience of Hope’ (1860), ‘A Present Heaven’ (1855, reissued in 1867 as ‘The Covenant of Life and Peace’), and ‘Two Friends’ (2nd edit. 1867,with a sequel, ‘Colloquia Crucis,’ 1871), are full of deep and beautiful religious thought. A volume of ‘Essays’ appeared in 1866, consisting chiefly of pieces that had appeared in periodicals, and included ‘Our Single Women,’ originally an article in the ‘North British Review,’ February 1862, in which she earnestly pleaded for the extension of educated women's work, with a due regard to their appropriate sphere. Another of her books was a ‘Life of Lacordaire’ (1867), with whose character and views she was in many respects in close sympathy. She also wrote a memoir of the quaker John Woolman (1871), and ‘Liber Humanitatis: Essays on Spiritual and Social Life’ (1875).

To the American edition (1862) of the ‘Patience of Hope’ a preface was prefixed by Whittier, who classed the writer with Thomas à Kempis, Augustine, Fénelon, John Woolman, and Tauler. Whittier says of Miss Greenwell's work: ‘It assumes the life and power of the gospel as a matter of actual experience; it bears unmistakable evidence of a realisation on the part of the author of the truth that Christianity is not simply historical and traditional, but present and permanent, with its roots in the infinite past and its branches in the infinite future, the eternal spring and growth of divine love.’

[Memoirs of Dora Greenwell, by William Dorling, London, 1885; selections from her Poetical Works, by the same editor, in the Canterbury Poets, 1889; personal knowledge.]

W. G. B.

GREENWELL, Sir LEONARD (1781–1844), major-general, born in 1781, was third son of Joshua Greenwell of Kibblesworth, of the family of Greenwell of Greenwell Ford, county Durham. He entered the army by purchase as ensign in the 45th foot in 1802, became lieutenant in 1803, and captain 1804. In 1806 he embarked with his regiment in the secret expedition under General Cranford, which ultimately was sent to La Plata as a reinforcement, and took part in the operations against Buenos Ayres. He landed with the regiment in Portugal on 1 Aug. 1808, and, save on two occasions when absent on account of wounds, was present with it throughout the Peninsular campaigns from Roliça to Toulouse. He was in temporary command of the regiment during Massena's retreat from Torres Vedras, at the battle of Fuentes d'Onoro, and at the final siege and fall of Badajoz; he became regimental major after Busaco, and received a brevet lieutenant-colonelcy after the battle of Salamanca; he conducted the light troops of Picton's division at Orthez, and succeeded to the command of his regiment on the fall of Colonel Forbes at Toulouse. In the course of these campaigns he was repeatedly wounded, was shot through the body, through the neck, and through the right arm, a bullet lodged in his left arm, and another in his right leg. In 1819 Greenwell took his regiment out to Ceylon, and commanded it there for six years, but was compelled to return home through ill-health before it embarked for Burma. In 1831 he was appointed commandant at Chatham, a post he vacated on promotion to major-general 10 Jan. 1837.

Greenwell was a K.C.B. and K.C.H. He had purchased all his regimental steps but one. He died in Harley Street, Cavendish Square, London, on 11 Nov. 1844, aged 63.

[Army Lists; Philippart's Roy. Mil. Calendar, 1820, iv. 429; Gent. Mag. 1845, pt. i. 98.]

H. M. C.

GREENWICH, Duke of. [See Campbell, John, second Duke of Argyll, 1678–1743.]

GREENWOOD, JAMES (d. 1737), grammarian, was for some time usher to Benjamin Morland at Hackney, but soon after 1711 opened a boarding-school at Woodford in Essex. At midsummer 1721, when Morland became high-master, he was appointed surmaster of St. Paul's School, London, a post which he held until his death on 12 Sept. 1737 (Gent. Mag. 1737, p. 574). He left a widow, Susannah. He was the author of: 1. ‘An Essay towards a practical English Grammar. Describing the Genius and Nature of the English Tongue,’ &c., 12mo, London, 1711 ; 2nd edit. 1722; 3rd edit. 1729; 5th edit. 1753. It received the praises of Professor Andrew Ross of Glasgow, Dr. George Hickes, John Chamberlayne, and Isaac Watts, who in his ‘Art of Reading and Writing English’ considered that Greenwood had shown in his book ‘the deep Knowledge, without the haughty Airs of a Critick.’ At Watts's suggestion Greenwood afterwards published an abridgment under the title of ‘The Royal English Grammar,’ which he dedicated to the Princess of Wales; the fourth edition of this appeared in 1750, an eighth in 1770. The appearance of two other English grammars by John Brightland and Michael Mattaire at about the same time called forth an anonymous attack on all three books, entitled ‘Bellum Grammatical; or the Grammatical Battel Royal. In Reflections on the

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