regency (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1558-9, entry 1119). The supposed presence of Arran in England caused much uneasiness in France and Spain. Elizabeth was suspected of intending him to be ' more than a guest' (De Quadra to Philip II, quoted by Froude, History, cab. ed. vi. 216). Arran arrived at Cecil's house at Westminster on 28 Aug. (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1558-9, entry 1274). Elizabeth had an interview with him there, and again at Hampton Court.
Before Arran's arrival in England Sadleir had advised that as soon as possible he should be sent to Scotland, that he might overcome the hesitation of the Duke of Chatelherault in supporting the reformed party (Sadler, State Papers, i. 400). Arran's presence in England was not recognised, though generally known. A pass to Scotland was now made out for him under a feigned name (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. entry 1293). He set out on 8 Sept., and was present at the convention held at Stirling on the llth (Knox, i. 413). His protestant zeal for a time neutralised the weak resolution of his father, who, under his advice, became reconciled to some of the lords of the congregation, and also signed the letter to the queen-regent depriving her of the regency. Encouraged by the arrival of Arran and the presence of Randolph, the English ambassador, the congregation on 15 Oct. entered Edinburgh with a force of fifteen thousand, whereupon the queen-regent retired within the fortifications of Leith. Elizabeth was persuaded by Cecil to send 4,000l. for the support of the Scottish confederates. The Earl of Bothwell [see Hepburn, James, fourth Earl of Bothwell, 1536-1578] waylaid the messenger and took the money. Arran and Lord James Stuart made an unsuccessful attempt to capture Bothwell at Crichton Castle, his principal residence (Cal. State Papers, For. Ser. 1559-60, entry 183), and had to content themselves with placing fifty gunners in it (ib.) On 6 Nov. Arran and Stuart marched out of Edinburgh to protect a convoy of provisions from a sally of the French from Leith, but becoming entangled in the marshes between Restalrig and Holyrood, had to retire into the city with heavy loss. This and previous disasters, coupled with the neutrality of Lord Erskine, governor of the castle, discouraged the protestants. In spite of Arran's remonstrances the whole force hastily fell back on Stirling. Although a sermon by Knox on Wednesday the 8th helped to revive their drooping spirits, they determined, till succour should arrive from Elizabeth, to act strictly on the defensive. While one division of the forces was sent to protect Glasgow and the rest of Scotland, Arran and Stuart went to St. Andrews to prepare resistance against a threatened attack on Fife (Knox, ii. 5). On 9 Nov. Bothwell had sent Arran a cartel of defiance (Sadleir, State Papers, i. 565), and after the queen-regent took possession of Edinburgh he proclaimed him a traitor at the sound of the trumpet (Knox, ii. 3). Learning in the beginning of January that the French had left Stirling, and were marching towards Fife, Arran and Stuart assembled their forces at Cupar, and sent their men-of-war round to Kinghorn (ib. p. 5). At Cupar Knox preached a sermon partly directed at Arran, 'because he keipit himself more close and solitary than many men would have wished' (ib. p. 9). After the sermon Arran and Stuart set out for Dysart with a force of about six hundred men. There for twenty-one days they kept the French at bay, although from their inferiority in numbers none of them dared to risk undressing during all that time, and they were frequently kept skirmishing from morning till night (ib. p. 9). Disheartened by such a vigorous resistance, the French resolved to march round the sea-coast to St. Andrews, their ships with provisions being kept within sight ; but their enterprise received a sudden check by the arrival in the Firth of Forth of the English fleet. The persistency of Arran and Stuart thus saved Fife ; for the French now with great precipitation retreated by Kinghorn to Stirling, whence with the utmost haste they returned to Leith (ib. pp. 13-15). Arran was present at the siege of that town, and on 10 May signed in the camp the confirmation of the treaty of Berwick, his name standing next to that of his father. He also signed 'the last band at Leith' for the ' liberty of the evangel' (ib. p. 63), and he subscribed the first 'Book of Discipline' (ib. p. 129). On account of Lord Semple having laid wait for Arran ' as he was riding with his accustomed company' (ib. p. 131), he and his father set out on 24 Sept. to besiege Castle Semple in Renfrewshire, which they captured on 14 Oct. (Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 63). Subsequently he was one of those appointed to go to the west for the 'destruction of the monuments of idolatry,' that is, the demolition of the religious houses (Knox, p. 167).
According to the articles forming part of the convention or treaty of peace signed at Edinburgh on 6 July 1560, Arran and his father were to be reinstated in their French estates (articles in Knox, ii. 73-82, and Keith, i. 298-306). The death of the queen-regent, on 10 June, made the lords of the congregation anxious for the marriage of