Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 24.djvu/94

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folio of 1634. A small quarto, with a collection of posthumous pieces called ‘The Shaking of the Olive Tree,’ was published in 1660; in 1662 a more complete collection of the bishop's works. In 1714 the moral works were published in a separate folio. The first complete edition was that published by the Rev. Josiah Pratt (London, 1808, 10 vols. 8vo). This was followed by an improved edition under the editorship of Peter Hall [q. v.], a descendant of the bishop, in twelve octavo volumes (Oxford, 1837), and by another collection, edited by the Rev. Philip Wynter (Oxford, 1863) in ten volumes. Of separate portions of the bishop's works there have been numerous editions. Singer edited the poems with Warton's illustrations in 1824. Dr. Grosart's complete edition of the poems appeared in 1879.

Engraved portraits of Hall are prefixed to his ‘Resolutions and Cases of Conscience,’ 1650; to his ‘Shaking of the Olive Tree,’ 1660; and to Whitefoot's funeral sermon.

[Bishop Hall's autobiographical tracts, Observations of some Specialities of Divine Providence, and Hard Measure, in his Shaking of the Olive Tree (1660); Wordsworth's Eccl. Biograph. vol. iv., London, 1839; the Rev. George Lewis's Life of Joseph Hall, D.D. (1886); Memoirs of Bishop Hall, by the Rev. John Jones, London, 1826; Life of Archbishop Laud, by Peter Heylyn, London, 1668; Prynne's Canterbury's Doom, London, 1645; Archbishop Laud's History of his Troubles, London, 1695; Clarendon's History of Rebellion, Oxford, 1843; Fuller's Worthies, London, 1662; Hall's King's Prophecie, ed. W. E. Buckley (Roxb. Club), 1882; Newly Discovered Poems by Bishop Hall, by J. P. Collier, in Gent. Mag. 1851, i. 235–9.]

G. G. P.

HALL, MARSHALL (1790–1857), physiologist, was born at Basford, near Nottingham, on 18 Feb. 1790. His father, Robert Hall (1755–1827), a cotton manufacturer and bleacher, was the first who used chlorine for bleaching on a large scale, and received a prize from the Society of Arts for the invention of a new crane. He was a Wesleyan, and known for his benevolence. During the Luddite disturbances the rioters wrote to him promising not to injure him. His wife, a woman of great worth and intelligence, bore him eight children. The second was Samuel Hall [q. v.], a prolific inventor.

Marshall, the fourth son and sixth child, showed an early fondness for reading. After a non-classical education by the Rev. J. Blanchard of Nottingham he was placed at fourteen with a chemist at Newark, and studied chemistry and anatomy with great diligence. In October 1809 he entered as a medical student at Edinburgh University, and in 1811 he was elected senior president of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh. Some of his early chemical papers, printed in ‘Nicholson's Journal,’ showed much originality; he was a persevering dissector, and in medicine specially devoted himself to diagnosis. As a student he showed his characteristic tendency to think intently on phenomena deemed inexplicable or irrelevant to the experiments in hand. Having graduated M.D. in June 1812, Hall was appointed resident house physician to the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. He gave a course of lectures on diagnosis in 1813. In 1814–15 he spent several months in visiting the medical schools of Paris, Göttingen, and Berlin, walking alone and on foot from Paris to Göttingen in November 1814. After six months' practice, at Bridgewater in 1816 Hall settled in Nottingham in February 1817, and published his well-known work on ‘Diagnosis,’ ‘comprehensive, lucid, exact, and reliable’ (Lancet, 15 Aug. 1857). Dr. Baillie, then president of the Royal College of Physicians, when Hall called upon him, mistook him for the son of the author of that ‘extraordinary work,’ and could scarcely credit such an achievement at twenty-seven. In 1818 Hall was elected fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Gaining an excellent practice, Hall soon became widely known for his successes by diminished blood-letting. In 1824 his valuable paper on ‘The Effects of Loss of Blood’ was published in the ‘Medico-Chirurgical Transactions.’ In 1825 he was elected physician to the Nottingham General Hospital; but in 1826 he removed to London, and his Nottingham practice largely followed him. For two years he lived at 15 Keppel Street, Russell Square, with his friend Burnside (partner in the publishing house of Seeleys). His work on the ‘Diseases of Females,’ 1828, brought him much practice, and further studies and writings on blood-letting occupied much time. In November 1829 he married, and in 1830 removed to 14 Manchester Square, where he lived for twenty years.

With a view to the fellowship of the Royal Society, Hall now took up the subject of the circulation of the blood in the minute vessels, and read a succession of highly original papers to the society in 1831. They made known facts which are now the commonplaces of microscopical study, but then came upon students with remarkable fascination. His paper ‘On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Minute and Capillary Vessels,’ though read, was refused a place in the society's ‘Transactions,’ but the great Johannes Müller pronounced it to be of extraordinary interest.