chosen pastor of the eighth church formed in the colony of Massachusetts. In June 1636 he removed with the greater part of his congregation to the banks of the Connecticut, where Hartford was founded. Hooker came to be identified with all the important political and religious movements of the colony, and, in August 1637, was one of the moderators of the synod held in Boston concerning the doctrines promulgated by Mrs. Anne Hutchinson [q. v.]. In the autumn of 1638 he addressed a remarkable letter to Governor Winthrop of Massachusetts regarding a permanent confederation of the colonies (first published in 1860 in vol. i. of the Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society, and also separately). Hooker was cut off by an epidemic on 7 July 1647. His death was mourned as a public calamity. He died possessed of a good estate and library, as appears from his will and inventory printed in Trumbull's ‘Public Records of Connecticut,’ i. 498–502. He left several children.
- ‘The Soules Preparation for Christ; or a Treatise of Contrition’ (anon.), 4to, London, 1632 (many editions).
- ‘The Soules Implantation’ (anon.), 4to, London, 1637; another edit., 4to, London, 1640.
- ‘The Soules Ingrafting into Christ. By T. H.,’ 4to, London, 1637.
- ‘The Soules Exaltation … By T. H.,’ London, 1638.
- ‘The Soules Humiliation’ (anon.), 2nd edit., 4to, London, 1638; another edit., 4to, London, 1640.
- ‘The Soule's Vocation, or effectual calling to Christ [on John vi. 45]. By T. H.,’ 4to, London, 1638.
- ‘An Exposition of the Principles of Religion,’ 12mo, London, 1640.
- ‘The Danger of Desertion; or a farewell Sermon [on Jer. xiv. 9] … preached immediately before his departure out of Old England. Together with ten particular Rules to be practised every day by converted Christians,’ 4to, London, 1641; 2nd edit. the same year.
- ‘The Faithful Covenanter: a Sermon,’ &c., 4to, London, 1644.
- ‘A briefe Exposition of the Lord's Prayer,’ 4to, London, 1645.
- ‘Heaven's Treasury opened in a fruitfull Exposition of the Lord's Prayer. Together with the principall grounds of Christian Religion briefly unfolded,’ two parts, 12mo, London, 1645. Part ii. had been published separately in 1640 as ‘An Exposition of the Principles of Religion.’
- ‘The Saint's Guide, in three Treatises. I. The Mirror of Mercie, on Gen. vi. 13. II. The Carnall Man's Condition, on Rom. i. 18. III. The Plantation of the Righteous, on Ps. i. 3,’ three parts, 12mo, London, 1645.
- ‘A Survey of the Summe of Church Discipline’ (defence of the churches of New England), four parts, 4to, London, 1648, a book which has largely affected the course of thought in the development of congregationalism in the United States.
- ‘The Covenant of Grace opened: wherein … infants baptisme is fully proved and vindicated; being severall Sermons preached at Hartford in New England,’ 4to, London, 1649.
- ‘The Saints Dignitie and Dutie. … Delivered in severall [seven] Sermons,’ 4to, London, 1651.
- ‘The Application of Redemption by the effectual work of the Word and Spirit of Christ, for the bringing home of lost sinners to God. The ninth and tenth books [on Is. lvii. 15 and Acts ii. 37]. (A Comment upon Christ's last Prayer in the seventeenth of John … being his seventeenth book, made in New England.) Two parts,’ 4to, London, 1656.
- ‘The poor doubting Christian drawn to Christ …,’ 12mo, London, 1684; another edit., with an abstract of the author's life by E. W. Hooker, 8vo, Hartford, 1845.
He wrote also ‘The Unbelievers preparing for Christ,’ and an epistle ‘To the Reader’ prefixed to ‘The Doctrine of Faith,’ by J. Rogers of Dedham, Essex, 12mo, 1629. His life was written by his descendant, the Rev. Edward W. Hooker, for vol. vi. of the series called ‘Lives of the Chief Fathers of New England,’ 12mo, Boston, 1849 and 1870, but is merely a compilation from Cotton Mather and Hooker's own writings.
[Information kindly supplied by the Rev. Dr. G. L. Walker of Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A.; Walker's Hist. of the First Church at Hartford (containing many authorities and a full bibliography); Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1631–3, p. 411; David's Annals of Evangelical Nonconformity in Essex, p. 149; Winthrop's Hist. of New England (Savage); Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana; Hubbard's Hist. of New England.]
HOOKER, Sir WILLIAM JACKSON (1785–1865), director of Kew Gardens, was born, on 6 July 1785, at Norwich, where his father was then in business. His father, Joseph Hooker, who was lineally descended from John Hooker [q. v.], the historian, the uncle of Richard Hooker [q. v.], was a native of Exeter, and devoted his leisure to the cultivation of rare plants and to reading, especially travels and German literature. Hooker was educated under the Rev. Dr. Foster at the Norwich grammar school, and having at an early age inherited landed property from his godfather, William Jackson of Canterbury, he determined to devote himself to travel and natural history. He lived for some time with Mr. Paul, a gentleman farmer, at Starston, Norfolk, and, being a keen sportsman, formed a fine collection of the birds of the county. An intimate acquaintance with Kirby, Spence, and Alex-