Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 28.djvu/299

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  1. 'Observations on certain parts of the Animal (Economy,' 4to, 1786, including his papers on the fœtal testes, the vesiculæ seminales, and nine papers from the 'Philosophical Transactions,' viz. on the free-martin (hermaphrodite cow), on a hen-pheasant with cockfeathers, on the organ of hearing in fishes, on the air receptacles of birds, on animal heat, on the recovery of the apparently drowned, on the structure of the placenta, on the Gillaroo trout; also a long paper on digestion, the colour of the eye-pigment in various animals, and the nerve of the organ of smell; 2nd edit., revised and enlarged, 1792. The principal addition is Hunter's 'Observations tending to show that the Wolf, Jackal, and Dog are all of the same species.'
  2. 'A Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and Gunshot Wounds,' London, 4to, 1794; with & short account of the author's life by Sir E. Home, 2nd edit., 1812, 2 vols. 8vo; 3rd edit., 2 vols., 1818; 4th edit., 1 vol., 1828.
  3. 'Directions for Preserving Animals and parts of Animals for Anatomical Investigation,' published by the Royal College of Surgeons in 1809.
  4. 'The Works of John Hunter' were edited, with notes, by James F. Palmer, 4 vols. 8vo, with a 4to vol. of plates, mostly from the originals, 1835-7; vol. i. included Ottley's 'Life of J.Hunter,'and Hunter's 'Surgical Lectures,' delivered in 1786 and 1787, from the shorthand notes of Mr. Henry Rumsey of Chesham, collated with Parkinson's and other notes; vol. ii. 'The Treatise on the Teeth,' with notes by Thomas Bell' (1792–1880) [q. v.], and that 'On the Venereal Disease,' with notes by G. G. Babington; vol. iii. 'Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, &c.,' with papers, &c., published in 'Transactions of Society for Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Knowledge;' vol. iv. 'Observations on certain parts of the Animal (Economy,' with preface and notes by R. Owen; the six 'Croonian Lectures on Muscular Motion,' and his other zoological papers.
  5. 'Observations and Reflections on Geology. … Intended to serve as an Introduction to the Catalogue of his Collection of Extraneous Fossils,' London, 1859, 4to.
  6. 'Memoranda on Vegetation,' 1860, 4to.
  7. 'Essays and Observations on Natural History, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, and Geology,' being his posthumous papers on those subjects, copied by William Clift, arranged and revised with notes by Sir R. Owen, together with Owen's `Lectures on the Hunterian Collection of Fossils,' delivered in March 1855, London, 8vo, 2 vols., 1861, with engraving from a bronze medallion of Hunter, executed in 1791. 'Hunterian Reminiscences,' by J. Parkinson, give the substance of Hunter's lectures in 1785.

There are numerous translations and American editions of Hunter's works. Among contemporary criticisms of Hunter are: `An Essay on the Bite of a Mad Dog, with Observations on John Hunter's Treatment of the case of Master R——,' by Jesse Foot the elder, 1788; 'Observations on the New Opinions of John Hunter,' &c., by Jesse Foot the elder; and John Thelwall's 'Essay towards a definition of Animal Vitality, in which the Opinions of John Hunter are examined,'Lond.,1793, 4to.

[European Mag. October 1782, pp. 245–7 (Abernethy was told by the editor, Perry, that Hunter supplied materials for this article); Gent. Mag. 1793, ii. 964 (inaccurate); Lives by Sir E. Home (prefixed to Hunter's Treatise on the Blood, &c., 1794), Jesse Foot [q. v.], 1794, Joseph Adams, 1817, Drewry Ottley, 1835 (the best), and Sir W. Jardine (1836), prefixed to vol. x. of the Naturalist's Library; Baron's Life of Jenner; S. D. Gross's John Hunter and his Pupils (with portrait), Philadelphia, 1881; Buckle's Hist, of Civilisation in England (1869), iii. 428-58; Only an Old Chair, a Tercentenary Tribute by D. R. A. G. M., Edinburgh, 1884; John Hunter at Earl's Court, Kensington, 1764–93, by J. J. Merriman, 1886; Hunterian Orations, especially those of Sir James Paget, 1877, Joseph H. Green, 1847, Sir B. Brodie, 1837, and Thomas Cheralier, 1821; Tom Taylor's Leicester Square, 1874, chap. xiv., with a Sketch of Hunter's Scientific Character and Works by Sir R. Owen; Leslie and Taylor's Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds, ii. 474. See also Lancet, 3 July 1886, 29 Sept. 1888, pp. 642, 643; an Appeal to the Parliament of England on the subject of the late Mr. John Hunter's Museum, London, 1795; Catalogues of the Hunterian Museum; information from Mr. Charles Hawkins, F.R.C.S.]

G. T. B.

HUNTER, JOHN, M.D. (d. 1809), physician, was born in Perthshire, and studied medicine at Edinburgh, where he graduated M.D. in 1775. His college thesis, 'De Hominum Varietatibus et harum causis,' shows him to have had a good education as well as a turn for research and correct reasoning. It was republished in an English translation by Bendyshe in 1865 as an appendix to Blumenbach's treatise on the same subject in the publications of the Anthropological Society. Hunter's essay had appeared just a month or two before Blumenbach's. 'Some parts of it,' says Bendyshe, 'are quite on a level with the science of the present day.' He was admitted a licentiate of the College of Physicians of London in 1777, and appointed physician to the army through the interest of Dr. Baker and Dr. Heberden. From 1781 to 1783 he was superintendent of the military hospitals in Jamaica. On returning to England he settled in practice as a physician in London. In 1787 he